InVivoMAb rat IgG2b isotype control, anti-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (Clone: LTF-2)
Bauche, D., et al. (2018). "LAG3(+) Regulatory T Cells Restrain Interleukin-23-Producing CX3CR1(+) Gut-Resident Macrophages during Group 3 Innate Lymphoid Cell-Driven Colitis." Immunity 49(2): 342-352 e345. PubMed
Interleukin-22 (IL-22)-producing group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) maintains gut homeostasis but can also promote inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The regulation of ILC3-dependent colitis remains to be elucidated. Here we show that Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg cells) prevented ILC3-mediated colitis in an IL-10-independent manner. Treg cells inhibited IL-23 and IL-1beta production from intestinal-resident CX3CR1(+) macrophages but not CD103(+) dendritic cells. Moreover, Treg cells restrained ILC3 production of IL-22 through suppression of CX3CR1(+) macrophage production of IL-23 and IL-1beta. This suppression was contact dependent and was mediated by latent activation gene-3 (LAG-3)-an immune checkpoint receptor-expressed on Treg cells. Engagement of LAG-3 on MHC class II drove profound immunosuppression of CX3CR1(+) tissue-resident macrophages. Our study reveals that the health of the intestinal mucosa is maintained by an axis driven by Treg cells communication with resident macrophages that withhold inflammatory stimuli required for ILC3 function.
Triplett, T. A., et al. (2018). "Reversal of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-mediated cancer immune suppression by systemic kynurenine depletion with a therapeutic enzyme." Nat Biotechnol 36(8): 758-764. PubMed
Increased tryptophan (Trp) catabolism in the tumor microenvironment (TME) can mediate immune suppression by upregulation of interferon (IFN)-gamma-inducible indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1) and/or ectopic expression of the predominantly liver-restricted enzyme tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO). Whether these effects are due to Trp depletion in the TME or mediated by the accumulation of the IDO1 and/or TDO (hereafter referred to as IDO1/TDO) product kynurenine (Kyn) remains controversial. Here we show that administration of a pharmacologically optimized enzyme (PEGylated kynureninase; hereafter referred to as PEG-KYNase) that degrades Kyn into immunologically inert, nontoxic and readily cleared metabolites inhibits tumor growth. Enzyme treatment was associated with a marked increase in the tumor infiltration and proliferation of polyfunctional CD8(+) lymphocytes. We show that PEG-KYNase administration had substantial therapeutic effects when combined with approved checkpoint inhibitors or with a cancer vaccine for the treatment of large B16-F10 melanoma, 4T1 breast carcinoma or CT26 colon carcinoma tumors. PEG-KYNase mediated prolonged depletion of Kyn in the TME and reversed the modulatory effects of IDO1/TDO upregulation in the TME.
Aloulou, M., et al. (2016). "Follicular regulatory T cells can be specific for the immunizing antigen and derive from naive T cells." Nat Commun 7: 10579. PubMed
T follicular regulatory (Tfr) cells are a subset of Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells that form in response to immunization or infection, which localize to the germinal centre where they control the magnitude of the response. Despite an increased interest in the role of Tfr cells in humoral immunity, many fundamental aspects of their biology remain unknown, including whether they recognize self- or foreign antigen. Here we show that Tfr cells can be specific for the immunizing antigen, irrespective of whether it is a self- or foreign antigen. We show that, in addition to developing from thymic derived Treg cells, Tfr cells can also arise from Foxp3(-) precursors in a PD-L1-dependent manner, if the adjuvant used is one that supports T-cell plasticity. These findings have important implications for Tfr cell biology and for improving vaccine efficacy by formulating vaccines that modify the Tfr:Tfh cell ratio.
Finkin, S., et al. (2015). "Ectopic lymphoid structures function as microniches for tumor progenitor cells in hepatocellular carcinoma." Nat Immunol. doi: 10.1038/ni.3290. PubMed
Ectopic lymphoid-like structures (ELSs) are often observed in cancer, yet their function is obscure. Although ELSs signify good prognosis in certain malignancies, we found that hepatic ELSs indicated poor prognosis for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We studied an HCC mouse model that displayed abundant ELSs and found that they constituted immunopathological microniches wherein malignant hepatocyte progenitor cells appeared and thrived in a complex cellular and cytokine milieu until gaining self-sufficiency. The egress of progenitor cells and tumor formation were associated with the autocrine production of cytokines previously provided by the niche. ELSs developed via cooperation between the innate immune system and adaptive immune system, an event facilitated by activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB and abolished by depletion of T cells. Such aberrant immunological foci might represent new targets for cancer therapy.
Park, H. J., et al. (2015). "PD-1 upregulated on regulatory T cells during chronic virus infection enhances the suppression of CD8+ T cell immune response via the interaction with PD-L1 expressed on CD8+ T cells." J Immunol 194(12): 5801-5811. PubMed
Regulatory T (Treg) cells act as terminators of T cell immuniy during acute phase of viral infection; however, their role and suppressive mechanism in chronic viral infection are not completely understood. In this study, we compared the phenotype and function of Treg cells during acute or chronic infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Chronic infection, unlike acute infection, led to a large expansion of Treg cells and their upregulation of programmed death-1 (PD-1). Treg cells from chronically infected mice (chronic Treg cells) displayed greater suppressive capacity for inhibiting both CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cell proliferation and subsequent cytokine production than those from naive or acutely infected mice. A contact between Treg and CD8(+) T cells was necessary for the potent suppression of CD8(+) T cell immune response. More importantly, the suppression required cell-specific expression and interaction of PD-1 on chronic Treg cells and PD-1 ligand on CD8(+) T cells. Our study defines PD-1 upregulated on Treg cells and its interaction with PD-1 ligand on effector T cells as one cause for the potent T cell suppression and proposes the role of PD-1 on Treg cells, in addition to that on exhausted T cells, during chronic viral infection.
Twyman-Saint Victor, C., et al. (2015). "Radiation and dual checkpoint blockade activate non-redundant immune mechanisms in cancer." Nature 520(7547): 373-377. PubMed
Immune checkpoint inhibitors result in impressive clinical responses, but optimal results will require combination with each other and other therapies. This raises fundamental questions about mechanisms of non-redundancy and resistance. Here we report major tumour regressions in a subset of patients with metastatic melanoma treated with an anti-CTLA4 antibody (anti-CTLA4) and radiation, and reproduced this effect in mouse models. Although combined treatment improved responses in irradiated and unirradiated tumours, resistance was common. Unbiased analyses of mice revealed that resistance was due to upregulation of PD-L1 on melanoma cells and associated with T-cell exhaustion. Accordingly, optimal response in melanoma and other cancer types requires radiation, anti-CTLA4 and anti-PD-L1/PD-1. Anti-CTLA4 predominantly inhibits T-regulatory cells (Treg cells), thereby increasing the CD8 T-cell to Treg (CD8/Treg) ratio. Radiation enhances the diversity of the T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire of intratumoral T cells. Together, anti-CTLA4 promotes expansion of T cells, while radiation shapes the TCR repertoire of the expanded peripheral clones. Addition of PD-L1 blockade reverses T-cell exhaustion to mitigate depression in the CD8/Treg ratio and further encourages oligoclonal T-cell expansion. Similarly to results from mice, patients on our clinical trial with melanoma showing high PD-L1 did not respond to radiation plus anti-CTLA4, demonstrated persistent T-cell exhaustion, and rapidly progressed. Thus, PD-L1 on melanoma cells allows tumours to escape anti-CTLA4-based therapy, and the combination of radiation, anti-CTLA4 and anti-PD-L1 promotes response and immunity through distinct mechanisms.
Zhang, J., et al. (2015). "Micro-RNA-155-mediated control of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) is required for restoring adaptively tolerant CD4+ T-cell function in rodents." Eur J Immunol 45(3): 829-842. PubMed
T cells chronically stimulated by a persistent antigen often become dysfunctional and lose effector functions and proliferative capacity. To identify the importance of micro-RNA-155 (miR-155) in this phenomenon, we analyzed mouse miR-155-deficient CD4(+) T cells in a model where the chronic exposure to a systemic antigen led to T-cell functional unresponsiveness. We found that miR-155 was required for restoring function of T cells after programmed death receptor 1 blockade. Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) was identified as a specific target of miR-155 and inhibition of HO-1 activity restored the expansion and tissue migration capacity of miR-155(-/-) CD4(+) T cells. Moreover, miR-155-mediated control of HO-1 expression in CD4(+) T cells was shown to sustain in vivo antigen-specific expansion and IL-2 production. Thus, our data identify HO-1 regulation as a mechanism by which miR-155 promotes T-cell-driven inflammation.
Rutigliano, J. A., et al. (2014). "Highly pathological influenza A virus infection is associated with augmented expression of PD-1 by functionally compromised virus-specific CD8+ T cells." J Virol 88(3): 1636-1651. PubMed
One question that continues to challenge influenza A research is why some strains of virus are so devastating compared to their more mild counterparts. We approached this question from an immunological perspective, investigating the CD8(+) T cell response in a mouse model system comparing high- and low-pathological influenza virus infections. Our findings reveal that the early (day 0 to 5) viral titer was not the determining factor in the outcome of disease. Instead, increased numbers of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells and elevated effector function on a per-cell basis were found in the low-pathological infection and correlated with reduced illness and later-time-point (day 6 to 10) viral titer. High-pathological infection was associated with increased PD-1 expression on influenza virus-specific CD8(+) T cells, and blockade of PD-L1 in vivo led to reduced virus titers and increased CD8(+) T cell numbers in high- but not low-pathological infection, though T cell functionality was not restored. These data show that high-pathological acute influenza virus infection is associated with a dysregulated CD8(+) T cell response, which is likely caused by the more highly inflamed airway microenvironment during the early days of infection. Therapeutic approaches specifically aimed at modulating innate airway inflammation may therefore promote efficient CD8(+) T cell activity. We show that during a severe influenza virus infection, one type of immune cell, the CD8 T cell, is less abundant and less functional than in a more mild infection. This dysregulated T cell phenotype correlates with a lower rate of virus clearance in the severe infection and is partially regulated by the expression of a suppressive coreceptor called PD-1. Treatment with an antibody that blocks PD-1 improves T cell functionality and increases virus clearance.
Erickson, J. J., et al. (2014). "Programmed death-1 impairs secondary effector lung CD8(+) T cells during respiratory virus reinfection." J Immunol 193(10): 5108-5117. PubMed
Reinfections with respiratory viruses are common and cause significant clinical illness, yet precise mechanisms governing this susceptibility are ill defined. Lung Ag-specific CD8(+) T cells (T(CD8)) are impaired during acute viral lower respiratory infection by the inhibitory receptor programmed death-1 (PD-1). To determine whether PD-1 contributes to recurrent infection, we first established a model of reinfection by challenging B cell-deficient mice with human metapneumovirus (HMPV) several weeks after primary infection, and found that HMPV replicated to high titers in the lungs. A robust secondary effector lung TCD8 response was generated during reinfection, but these cells were more impaired and more highly expressed the inhibitory receptors PD-1, LAG-3, and 2B4 than primary T(CD8). In vitro blockade demonstrated that PD-1 was the dominant inhibitory receptor early after reinfection. In vivo therapeutic PD-1 blockade during HMPV reinfection restored lung T(CD8) effector functions (i.e., degranulation and cytokine production) and enhanced viral clearance. PD-1 also limited the protective efficacy of HMPV epitope-specific peptide vaccination and impaired lung T(CD8) during heterotypic influenza virus challenge infection. Our results indicate that PD-1 signaling may contribute to respiratory virus reinfection and evasion of vaccine-elicited immune responses. These results have important implications for the design of effective vaccines against respiratory viruses.
Steel, C. D., et al. (2014). "Role of peripheral immune response in microglia activation and regulation of brain chemokine and proinflammatory cytokine responses induced during VSV encephalitis." J Neuroimmunol 267(1-2): 50-60. PubMed
We report herein that neuroinvasion by vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) activates microglia and induces a peripheral dendritic cell (DC)-dependent inflammatory response in the central nervous system (CNS). VSV neuroinvasion rapidly induces multiple brain chemokine and proinflammatory cytokine mRNAs that display bimodal kinetics. Peripheral DC ablation or T cell depletion suppresses the second wave of this response demonstrating that infiltrating T cells are primarily responsible for the bimodal characteristics of this response. The robust infiltrate associated with VSV encephalitis likely depends on sustained production of brain CCL19 and CCR7 expression on infiltrating inflammatory cells.
van der Merwe, M., et al. (2013). "Recipient myeloid-derived immunomodulatory cells induce PD-1 ligand-dependent donor CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cell proliferation and donor-recipient immune tolerance after murine nonmyeloablative bone marrow transplantation." J Immunol 191(11): 5764-5776. PubMed
We showed previously that nonmyeloablative total lymphoid irradiation/rabbit anti-thymocyte serum (TLI/ATS) conditioning facilitates potent donor-recipient immune tolerance following bone marrow transplantation (BMT) across MHC barriers via recipient invariant NKT (iNKT) cell-derived IL-4-dependent expansion of donor Foxp3(+) naturally occurring regulatory T cells (nTregs). In this study, we report a more specific mechanism. Wild-type (WT) BALB/c (H-2(d)) hosts were administered TLI/ATS and BMT from WT or STAT6(-/-) C57BL/6 (H-2(b)) donors. Following STAT6(-/-) BMT, donor nTregs demonstrated no loss of proliferation in vivo, indicating that an IL-4-responsive population in the recipient, rather than the donor, drives donor nTreg proliferation. In graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) target organs, three recipient CD11b(+) cell subsets (Gr-1(high)CD11c(-), Gr-1(int)CD11c(-), and Gr-1(low)CD11c(+)) were enriched early after TLI/ATS + BMT versus total body irradiation/ATS + BMT. Gr-1(low)CD11c(+) cells induced potent H-2K(b+)CD4(+)Foxp3(+) nTreg proliferation in vitro in 72-h MLRs. Gr-1(low)CD11c(+) cells were reduced significantly in STAT6(-/-) and iNKT cell-deficient Jalpha18(-/-) BALB/c recipients after TLI/ATS + BMT. Depletion of CD11b(+) cells resulted in severe acute GVHD, and adoptive transfer of WT Gr-1(low)CD11c(+) cells to Jalpha18(-/-) BALB/c recipients of TLI/ATS + BMT restored day-6 donor Foxp3(+) nTreg proliferation and protection from CD8 effector T cell-mediated GVHD. Blockade of programmed death ligand 1 and 2, but not CD40, TGF-beta signaling, arginase 1, or iNOS, inhibited nTreg proliferation in cocultures of recipient-derived Gr-1(low)CD11c(+) cells with donor nTregs. Through iNKT-dependent Th2 polarization, myeloid-derived immunomodulatory dendritic cells are expanded after nonmyeloablative TLI/ATS conditioning and allogeneic BMT, induce PD-1 ligand-dependent donor nTreg proliferation, and maintain potent graft-versus-host immune tolerance.
Willimsky, G., et al. (2013). "Virus-induced hepatocellular carcinomas cause antigen-specific local tolerance." J Clin Invest 123(3): 1032-1043. PubMed
T cell surveillance is often effective against virus-associated tumors because of their high immunogenicity. It is not clear why surveillance occasionally fails, particularly against hepatitis B virus- or hepatitis C virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We established a transgenic murine model of virus-induced HCC by hepatocyte-specific adenovirus-induced activation of the oncogenic SV40 large T antigen (TAg). Adenovirus infection induced cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) targeted against the virus and TAg, leading to clearance of the infected cells. Despite the presence of functional, antigen-specific T cells, a few virus-infected cells escaped immune clearance and progressed to HCC. These cells expressed TAg at levels similar to HCC isolated from neonatal TAg-tolerant mice, suggesting that CTL clearance does not select for cells with low immunogenicity. Virus-infected mice revealed significantly greater T cell infiltration in early-stage HCC compared with that in late-stage HCC, demonstrating progressive local immune suppression through inefficient T cell infiltration. Programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) and its ligand PD-L1 were expressed in all TAg-specific CD8+ T cells and HCC, respectively, which contributed to local tumor-antigen-specific tolerance. Thus, we have developed a model of virus-induced HCC that may allow for a better understanding of human HCC.
Kearl, T. J., et al. (2013). "Programmed death receptor-1/programmed death receptor ligand-1 blockade after transient lymphodepletion to treat myeloma." J Immunol 190(11): 5620-5628. PubMed
Early phase clinical trials targeting the programmed death receptor-1/ligand-1 (PD-1/PD-L1) pathway to overcome tumor-mediated immunosuppression have reported promising results for a variety of cancers. This pathway appears to play an important role in the failure of immune reactivity to malignant plasma cells in multiple myeloma patients, as the tumor cells express relatively high levels of PD-L1, and T cells show increased PD-1 expression. In the current study, we demonstrate that PD-1/PD-L1 blockade with a PD-L1-specific Ab elicits rejection of a murine myeloma when combined with lymphodepleting irradiation. This particular combined approach by itself has not previously been shown to be efficacious in other tumor models. The antitumor effect of lymphodepletion/anti-PD-L1 therapy was most robust when tumor Ag-experienced T cells were present either through cell transfer or survival after nonmyeloablative irradiation. In vivo depletion of CD4 or CD8 T cells completely eliminated antitumor efficacy of the lymphodepletion/anti-PD-L1 therapy, indicating that both T cell subsets are necessary for tumor rejection. Elimination of myeloma by T cells occurs relatively quickly as tumor cells in the bone marrow were nearly nondetectable by 5 d after the first anti-PD-L1 treatment, suggesting that antimyeloma reactivity is primarily mediated by preactivated T cells, rather than newly generated myeloma-reactive T cells. Anti-PD-L1 plus lymphodepletion failed to improve survival in two solid tumor models, but demonstrated significant efficacy in two hematologic malignancy models. In summary, our results support the clinical testing of lymphodepletion and PD-1/PD-L1 blockade as a novel approach for improving the survival of patients with multiple myeloma.
Sledzinska, A., et al. (2013). "TGF-beta signalling is required for CD4(+) T cell homeostasis but dispensable for regulatory T cell function." PLoS Biol 11(10): e1001674. PubMed
TGF-beta is widely held to be critical for the maintenance and function of regulatory T (T(reg)) cells and thus peripheral tolerance. This is highlighted by constitutive ablation of TGF-beta receptor (TR) during thymic development in mice, which leads to a lethal autoimmune syndrome. Here we describe that TGF-beta-driven peripheral tolerance is not regulated by TGF-beta signalling on mature CD4(+) T cells. Inducible TR2 ablation specifically on CD4(+) T cells did not result in a lethal autoinflammation. Transfer of these TR2-deficient CD4(+) T cells to lymphopenic recipients resulted in colitis, but not overt autoimmunity. In contrast, thymic ablation of TR2 in combination with lymphopenia led to lethal multi-organ inflammation. Interestingly, deletion of TR2 on mature CD4(+) T cells does not result in the collapse of the T(reg) cell population as observed in constitutive models. Instead, a pronounced enlargement of both regulatory and effector memory T cell pools was observed. This expansion is cell-intrinsic and seems to be caused by increased T cell receptor sensitivity independently of common gamma chain-dependent cytokine signals. The expression of Foxp3 and other regulatory T cells markers was not dependent on TGF-beta signalling and the TR2-deficient T(reg) cells retained their suppressive function both in vitro and in vivo. In summary, absence of TGF-beta signalling on mature CD4(+) T cells is not responsible for breakdown of peripheral tolerance, but rather controls homeostasis of mature T cells in adult mice.
Coers, J., et al. (2011). "Compensatory T cell responses in IRG-deficient mice prevent sustained Chlamydia trachomatis infections." PLoS Pathog 7(6): e1001346. PubMed
The obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of bacterial sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. In women C. trachomatis can establish persistent genital infections that lead to pelvic inflammatory disease and sterility. In contrast to natural infections in humans, experimentally induced infections with C. trachomatis in mice are rapidly cleared. The cytokine interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) plays a critical role in the clearance of C. trachomatis infections in mice. Because IFNgamma induces an antimicrobial defense system in mice but not in humans that is composed of a large family of Immunity Related GTPases (IRGs), we questioned whether mice deficient in IRG immunity would develop persistent infections with C. trachomatis as observed in human patients. We found that IRG-deficient Irgm1/m3((-/-)) mice transiently develop high bacterial burden post intrauterine infection, but subsequently clear the infection more efficiently than wildtype mice. We show that the delayed but highly effective clearance of intrauterine C. trachomatis infections in Irgm1/m3((-/-)) mice is dependent on an exacerbated CD4(+) T cell response. These findings indicate that the absence of the predominant murine innate effector mechanism restricting C. trachomatis growth inside epithelial cells results in a compensatory adaptive immune response, which is at least in part driven by CD4(+) T cells and prevents the establishment of a persistent infection in mice.