InVivoMAb rat IgG2a isotype control, anti-trinitrophenol (Clone: 2A3)
Bauche, D., et al. (2018). "LAG3(+) Regulatory T Cells Restrain Interleukin-23-Producing CX3CR1(+) Gut-Resident Macrophages during Group 3 Innate Lymphoid Cell-Driven Colitis." Immunity 49(2): 342-352 e345. PubMed
Interleukin-22 (IL-22)-producing group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) maintains gut homeostasis but can also promote inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The regulation of ILC3-dependent colitis remains to be elucidated. Here we show that Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg cells) prevented ILC3-mediated colitis in an IL-10-independent manner. Treg cells inhibited IL-23 and IL-1beta production from intestinal-resident CX3CR1(+) macrophages but not CD103(+) dendritic cells. Moreover, Treg cells restrained ILC3 production of IL-22 through suppression of CX3CR1(+) macrophage production of IL-23 and IL-1beta. This suppression was contact dependent and was mediated by latent activation gene-3 (LAG-3)-an immune checkpoint receptor-expressed on Treg cells. Engagement of LAG-3 on MHC class II drove profound immunosuppression of CX3CR1(+) tissue-resident macrophages. Our study reveals that the health of the intestinal mucosa is maintained by an axis driven by Treg cells communication with resident macrophages that withhold inflammatory stimuli required for ILC3 function.
Dai, M., et al. (2015). "Curing mice with large tumors by locally delivering combinations of immunomodulatory antibodies." Clin Cancer Res 21(5): 1127-1138. PubMed
PURPOSE: Immunomodulatory mAbs can treat cancer, but cures are rare except for small tumors. Our objective was to explore whether the therapeutic window increases by combining mAbs with different modes of action and injecting them into tumors. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Combinations of mAbs to CD137/PD-1/CTLA-4 or CD137/PD-1/CTLA-4/CD19 were administrated intratumorally to mice with syngeneic tumors (B16 and SW1 melanoma, TC1 lung carcinoma), including tumors with a mean surface of approximately 80 mm(2). Survival and tumor growth were assessed. Immunologic responses were evaluated using flow cytometry and qRT-PCR. RESULTS: More than 50% of tumor-bearing mice had complete regression and long-term survival after tumor injection with mAbs recognizing CD137/PD-1/CTLA-4/CD19 with similar responses in three models. Intratumoral injection was more efficacious than intraperitoneal injection in causing rejection also of untreated tumors in the same mice. The three-mAb combination could also induce regression, but was less efficacious. There were few side effects, and therapy-resistant tumors were not observed. Transplanted tumor cells rapidly caused a Th2 response with increased CD19 cells. Successful therapy shifted this response to the Th1 phenotype with decreased CD19 cells and increased numbers of long-term memory CD8 effector cells and T cells making IFNgamma and TNFalpha. CONCLUSIONS: Intratumoral injection of mAbs recognizing CD137/PD-1/CTLA-4/CD19 can eradicate established tumors and reverse a Th2 response with tumor-associated CD19 cells to Th1 immunity, whereas a combination lacking anti-CD19 is less effective. There are several human cancers for which a similar approach may provide clinical benefit.
Ellis, G. T., et al. (2015). "TRAIL+ monocytes and monocyte-related cells cause lung damage and thereby increase susceptibility to influenza-Streptococcus pneumoniae coinfection." EMBO Rep 16(9): 1203-1218. PubMed
Streptococcus pneumoniae coinfection is a major cause of influenza-associated mortality; however, the mechanisms underlying pathogenesis or protection remain unclear. Using a clinically relevant mouse model, we identify immune-mediated damage early during coinfection as a new mechanism causing susceptibility. Coinfected CCR2(-/-) mice lacking monocytes and monocyte-derived cells control bacterial invasion better, show reduced epithelial damage and are overall more resistant than wild-type controls. In influenza-infected wild-type lungs, monocytes and monocyte-derived cells are the major cell populations expressing the apoptosis-inducing ligand TRAIL. Accordingly, anti-TRAIL treatment reduces bacterial load and protects against coinfection if administered during viral infection, but not following bacterial exposure. Post-influenza bacterial outgrowth induces a strong proinflammatory cytokine response and massive inflammatory cell infiltrate. Depletion of neutrophils or blockade of TNF-alpha facilitate bacterial outgrowth, leading to increased mortality, demonstrating that these factors aid bacterial control. We conclude that inflammatory monocytes recruited early, during the viral phase of coinfection, induce TRAIL-mediated lung damage, which facilitates bacterial invasion, while TNF-alpha and neutrophil responses help control subsequent bacterial outgrowth. We thus identify novel determinants of protection versus pathology in influenza-Streptococcus pneumoniae coinfection.
Kurtulus, S., et al. (2015). "TIGIT predominantly regulates the immune response via regulatory T cells." J Clin Invest. doi: 10.1172/JCI81187. PubMed
Coinhibitory receptors are critical for the maintenance of immune homeostasis. Upregulation of these receptors on effector T cells terminates T cell responses, while their expression on Tregs promotes their suppressor function. Understanding the function of coinhibitory receptors in effector T cells and Tregs is crucial, as therapies that target coinhibitory receptors are currently at the forefront of treatment strategies for cancer and other chronic diseases. T cell Ig and ITIM domain (TIGIT) is a recently identified coinhibitory receptor that is found on the surface of a variety of lymphoid cells, and its role in immune regulation is just beginning to be elucidated. We examined TIGIT-mediated immune regulation in different murine cancer models and determined that TIGIT marks the most dysfunctional subset of CD8+ T cells in tumor tissue as well as tumor-tissue Tregs with a highly active and suppressive phenotype. We demonstrated that TIGIT signaling in Tregs directs their phenotype and that TIGIT primarily suppresses antitumor immunity via Tregs and not CD8+ T cells. Moreover, TIGIT+ Tregs upregulated expression of the coinhibitory receptor TIM-3 in tumor tissue, and TIM-3 and TIGIT synergized to suppress antitumor immune responses. Our findings provide mechanistic insight into how TIGIT regulates immune responses in chronic disease settings.
Ngiow, S. F., et al. (2015). "A Threshold Level of Intratumor CD8+ T-cell PD1 Expression Dictates Therapeutic Response to Anti-PD1." Cancer Res 75(18): 3800-3811. PubMed
Despite successes, thus far, a significant proportion of the patients treated with anti-PD1 antibodies have failed to respond. We use mouse tumor models of anti-PD1 sensitivity and resistance and flow cytometry to assess tumor-infiltrating immune cells immediately after therapy. We demonstrate that the expression levels of T-cell PD1 (PD1(lo)), myeloid, and T-cell PDL1 (PDL1(hi)) in the tumor microenvironment inversely correlate and dictate the efficacy of anti-PD1 mAb and function of intratumor CD8(+) T cells. In sensitive tumors, we reveal a threshold for PD1 downregulation on tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells below which the release of adaptive immune resistance is achieved. In contrast, PD1(hi) T cells in resistant tumors fail to be rescued by anti-PD1 therapy and remain dysfunctional unless intratumor PDL1(lo) immune cells are targeted. Intratumor Tregs are partly responsible for the development of anti-PD1-resistant tumors and PD1(hi) CD8(+) T cells. Our analyses provide a framework to interrogate intratumor CD8(+) T-cell PD1 and immune PDL1 levels and response in human cancer.
Mittal, D., et al. (2014). "Antimetastatic effects of blocking PD-1 and the adenosine A2A receptor." Cancer Res 74(14): 3652-3658. PubMed
Adenosine targeting is an attractive new approach to cancer treatment, but no clinical study has yet examined adenosine inhibition in oncology despite the safe clinical profile of adenosine A2A receptor inhibitors (A2ARi) in Parkinson disease. Metastasis is the main cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, and therefore we have studied experimental and spontaneous mouse models of melanoma and breast cancer metastasis to demonstrate the efficacy and mechanism of a combination of A2ARi in combination with anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody (mAb). This combination significantly reduces metastatic burden and prolongs the life of mice compared with either monotherapy alone. Importantly, the combination was only effective when the tumor expressed high levels of CD73, suggesting a tumor biomarker that at a minimum could be used to stratify patients that might receive this combination. The mechanism of the combination therapy was critically dependent on NK cells and IFNgamma, and to a lesser extent, CD8(+) T cells and the effector molecule, perforin. Overall, these results provide a strong rationale to use A2ARi with anti-PD-1 mAb for the treatment of minimal residual and metastatic disease.
Walsh, K. B., et al. (2014). "Animal model of respiratory syncytial virus: CD8+ T cells cause a cytokine storm that is chemically tractable by sphingosine-1-phosphate 1 receptor agonist therapy." J Virol 88(11): 6281-6293. PubMed
The cytokine storm is an intensified, dysregulated, tissue-injurious inflammatory response driven by cytokine and immune cell components. The cytokine storm during influenza virus infection, whereby the amplified innate immune response is primarily responsible for pulmonary damage, has been well characterized. Now we describe a novel event where virus-specific T cells induce a cytokine storm. The paramyxovirus pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) is a model of human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV). Unexpectedly, when C57BL/6 mice were infected with PVM, the innate inflammatory response was undetectable until day 5 postinfection, at which time CD8(+) T cells infiltrated into the lung, initiating a cytokine storm by their production of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). Administration of an immunomodulatory sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor 1 (S1P1R) agonist significantly inhibited PVM-elicited cytokine storm by blunting the PVM-specific CD8(+) T cell response, resulting in diminished pulmonary disease and enhanced survival. IMPORTANCE: A dysregulated overly exuberant immune response, termed a "cytokine storm," accompanies virus-induced acute respiratory diseases (VARV), is primarily responsible for the accompanying high morbidity and mortality, and can be controlled therapeutically in influenza virus infection of mice and ferrets by administration of sphingosine-1-phosphate 1 receptor (S1P1R) agonists. Here, two novel findings are recorded. First, in contrast to influenza infection, where the cytokine storm is initiated early by the innate immune system, for pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), a model of RSV, the cytokine storm is initiated late in infection by the adaptive immune response: specifically, by virus-specific CD8 T cells via their release of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. Blockading these cytokines with neutralizing antibodies blunts the cytokine storm and protects the host. Second, PVM infection is controlled by administration of an S1P1R agonist.
Xiao, N., et al. (2014). "The E3 ubiquitin ligase Itch is required for the differentiation of follicular helper T cells." Nat Immunol 15(7): 657-666. PubMed
Follicular helper T cells (T(FH) cells) are responsible for effective B cell-mediated immunity, and Bcl-6 is a central factor for the differentiation of T(FH) cells. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the induction of T(FH) cells remain unclear. Here we found that the E3 ubiquitin ligase Itch was essential for the differentiation of T(FH) cells, germinal center responses and immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses to acute viral infection. Itch acted intrinsically in CD4(+) T cells at early stages of T(FH) cell development. Itch seemed to act upstream of Bcl-6 expression, as Bcl-6 expression was substantially impaired in Itch(-/-) cells, and the differentiation of Itch(-/-) T cells into T(FH) cells was restored by enforced expression of Bcl-6. Itch associated with the transcription factor Foxo1 and promoted its ubiquitination and degradation. The defective T(FH) differentiation of Itch(-/-) T cells was rectified by deletion of Foxo1. Thus, our results indicate that Itch acts as an essential positive regulator in the differentiation of T(FH) cells.
Simons, D. M., et al. (2013). "Autoreactive Th1 cells activate monocytes to support regional Th17 responses in inflammatory arthritis." J Immunol 190(7): 3134-3141. PubMed
We have examined mechanisms underlying the formation of pathologic Th17 cells using a transgenic mouse model in which autoreactive CD4(+) T cells recognize influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) as a ubiquitously expressed self-Ag and induce inflammatory arthritis. The lymph nodes of arthritic mice contain elevated numbers of inflammatory monocytes (iMO) with an enhanced capacity to promote CD4(+) Th17 cell differentiation, and a regional inflammatory response develops in the paw-draining lymph nodes by an IL-17-dependent mechanism. The activation of these Th17-trophic iMO precedes arthritis development and occurs in the context of an autoreactive CD4(+) Th1 cell response. Adoptive transfer of HA-specific CD4(+) T cells into nonarthritic mice expressing HA as a self-Ag similarly led to the formation of Th1 cells and of iMO that could support Th17 cell formation, and, notably, the accumulation of these iMO in the lymph nodes was blocked by IFN-gamma neutralization. These studies show that autoreactive CD4(+) Th1 cells directed to a systemically distributed self-Ag can promote the development of a regional Th17 cell inflammatory response by driving the recruitment of Th17-trophic iMO to the lymph nodes.
Bamboat, Z. M., et al. (2010). "Toll-like receptor 9 inhibition confers protection from liver ischemia-reperfusion injury." Hepatology 51(2): 621-632. PubMed
Endogenous ligands such as high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and nucleic acids are released by dying cells and bind Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Because TLR9 sits at the interface of microbial and sterile inflammation by detecting both bacterial and endogenous DNA, we investigated its role in a model of segmental liver ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Mice were subjected to 1 hour of ischemia and 12 hours of reperfusion before assessment of liver injury, cytokines, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Wild-type (WT) mice treated with an inhibitory cytosine-guanosine dinucleotide (iCpG) sequence and TLR9(-/-) mice had markedly reduced serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and inflammatory cytokines after liver I/R. Liver damage was mediated by bone marrow-derived cells because WT mice transplanted with TLR9(-/-) bone marrow were protected from hepatic I/R injury. Injury in WT mice partly depended on TLR9 signaling in neutrophils, which enhanced production of ROS, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). In vitro, DNA released from necrotic hepatocytes increased liver nonparenchymal cell (NPC) and neutrophil cytokine secretion through a TLR9-dependent mechanism. Inhibition of both TLR9 and HMGB1 caused maximal inflammatory cytokine suppression in neutrophil cultures and conferred even greater protection from I/R injury in vivo. CONCLUSION: TLR9 serves as an endogenous sensor of tissue necrosis that exacerbates the innate immune response during liver I/R. Combined blockade of TLR9 and HMGB1 represents a clinically relevant, novel approach to limiting I/R injury.
Bamboat, Z. M., et al. (2010). "Conventional DCs reduce liver ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice via IL-10 secretion." J Clin Invest 120(2): 559-569. PubMed
TLRs are recognized as promoters of tissue damage, even in the absence of pathogens. TLR binding to damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) released by injured host cells unleashes an inflammatory cascade that amplifies tissue destruction. However, whether TLRs possess the reciprocal ability to curtail the extent of sterile inflammation is uncertain. Here, we investigated this possibility in mice by studying the role of conventional DCs (cDCs) in liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, a model of sterile inflammation. Targeted depletion of mouse cDCs increased liver injury after I/R, as assessed by serum alanine aminotransferase and histologic analysis. In vitro, we identified hepatocyte DNA as an endogenous ligand to TLR9 that promoted cDCs to secrete IL-10. In vivo, cDC production of IL-10 required TLR9 and reduced liver injury. In addition, we found that inflammatory monocytes recruited to the liver via chemokine receptor 2 were downstream targets of cDC IL-10. IL-10 from cDCs reduced production of TNF, IL-6, and ROS by inflammatory monocytes. Our results implicate inflammatory monocytes as mediators of liver I/R injury and reveal that cDCs respond to DAMPS during sterile inflammation, providing the host with protection from progressive tissue damage.