InVivoMAb anti-mouse ICOS (Clone: 7E.17G9)
Bauche, D., et al. (2018). "LAG3(+) Regulatory T Cells Restrain Interleukin-23-Producing CX3CR1(+) Gut-Resident Macrophages during Group 3 Innate Lymphoid Cell-Driven Colitis." Immunity 49(2): 342-352 e345. PubMed
Interleukin-22 (IL-22)-producing group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) maintains gut homeostasis but can also promote inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The regulation of ILC3-dependent colitis remains to be elucidated. Here we show that Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg cells) prevented ILC3-mediated colitis in an IL-10-independent manner. Treg cells inhibited IL-23 and IL-1beta production from intestinal-resident CX3CR1(+) macrophages but not CD103(+) dendritic cells. Moreover, Treg cells restrained ILC3 production of IL-22 through suppression of CX3CR1(+) macrophage production of IL-23 and IL-1beta. This suppression was contact dependent and was mediated by latent activation gene-3 (LAG-3)-an immune checkpoint receptor-expressed on Treg cells. Engagement of LAG-3 on MHC class II drove profound immunosuppression of CX3CR1(+) tissue-resident macrophages. Our study reveals that the health of the intestinal mucosa is maintained by an axis driven by Treg cells communication with resident macrophages that withhold inflammatory stimuli required for ILC3 function.
Wang, W., et al. (2018). "RIP1 Kinase Drives Macrophage-Mediated Adaptive Immune Tolerance in Pancreatic Cancer." Cancer Cell 34(5): 757-774 e757. PubMed
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is characterized by immune tolerance and immunotherapeutic resistance. We discovered upregulation of receptor-interacting serine/threonine protein kinase 1 (RIP1) in tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in PDA. To study its role in oncogenic progression, we developed a selective small-molecule RIP1 inhibitor with high in vivo exposure. Targeting RIP1 reprogrammed TAMs toward an MHCII(hi)TNFalpha(+)IFNgamma(+) immunogenic phenotype in a STAT1-dependent manner. RIP1 inhibition in TAMs resulted in cytotoxic T cell activation and T helper cell differentiation toward a mixed Th1/Th17 phenotype, leading to tumor immunity in mice and in organotypic models of human PDA. Targeting RIP1 synergized with PD1-and inducible co-stimulator-based immunotherapies. Tumor-promoting effects of RIP1 were independent of its co-association with RIP3. Collectively, our work describes RIP1 as a checkpoint kinase governing tumor immunity.
Liu, D., et al. (2016). "Retrogenic ICOS Expression Increases Differentiation of KLRG-1hiCD127loCD8+ T Cells during Listeria Infection and Diminishes Recall Responses." J Immunol 196(3): 1000-1012. PubMed
Following T cell encounter with Ag, multiple signals are integrated to collectively induce distinct differentiation programs within Ag-specific CD8(+) T cell populations. Several factors contribute to these cell fate decisions, including the amount and duration of Ag, exposure to inflammatory cytokines, and degree of ligation of cosignaling molecules. The ICOS is not expressed on resting T cells but is rapidly upregulated upon encounter with Ag. However, the impact of ICOS signaling on programmed differentiation is not well understood. In this study, we therefore sought to determine the role of ICOS signaling on CD8(+) T cell programmed differentiation. Through the creation of novel ICOS retrogenic Ag-specific TCR-transgenic CD8(+) T cells, we interrogated the phenotype, functionality, and recall potential of CD8(+) T cells that receive early and sustained ICOS signaling during Ag exposure. Our results reveal that these ICOS signals critically impacted cell fate decisions of Ag-specific CD8(+) T cells, resulting in increased frequencies of KLRG-1(hi)CD127(lo) cells, altered BLIMP-1, T-bet, and eomesodermin expression, and increased cytolytic capacity as compared with empty vector controls. Interestingly, however, ICOS retrogenic CD8(+) T cells also preferentially homed to nonlymphoid organs and exhibited reduced multicytokine functionality and reduced ability to mount secondary recall responses upon challenge in vivo. In sum, our results suggest that an altered differentiation program is induced following early and sustained ICOS expression, resulting in the generation of more cytolyticly potent, terminally differentiated effectors that possess limited capacity for recall response.
Villegas-Mendez, A., et al. (2015). "Parasite-specific CD4+IFN-gamma+IL-10+ T cells distribute within both lymphoid and non-lymphoid compartments and are controlled systemically by IL-27 and ICOS during blood-stage malaria infection." Infect Immun. pii: IAI.01100-15. PubMed
Immune-mediated pathology in IL-10 deficient mice during blood-stage malaria infection typically manifests in non-lymphoid organs, such as the liver and lung. Thus, it is critical to define the cellular sources of IL-10 in these sensitive non-lymphoid compartments during infection. Moreover, it is important to determine if IL-10 production is controlled through conserved or disparate molecular programmes in distinct anatomical locations during malaria infection, as this may enable spatiotemporal tuning of the regulatory immune response. In this study, using dual IFN-gamma-YFP and IL-10-GFP reporter mice we show that CD4+YFP+ T cells are the major source of IL-10 in both lymphoid and non-lymphoid compartments throughout the course of blood-stage P. yoelii infection. Mature splenic CD4+YFP+GFP+ T cells, which preferentially expressed high levels of CCR5, were capable of migrating to and seeding the non-lymphoid tissues, indicating that the systemically distributed host-protective cells have a common developmental history. Despite exhibiting comparable phenotypes, CD4+YFP+GFP+ T cells from the liver and lung produced significantly higher quantities of IL-10 than their splenic counterparts, showing that the CD4+YFP+GFP+ T cells exert graded functions in distinct tissue locations during infection. Unexpectedly, given the unique environmental conditions within discrete non-lymphoid and lymphoid organs, we show that IL-10 production by CD4+YFP+ T cells is controlled systemically during malaria infection through IL-27R signalling that is supported post-CD4+ T cell priming by ICOS signalling. The results in this study substantially improve our understanding of the systemic IL-10 response to malaria infection, particularly within sensitive non-lymphoid organs.
Krupnick, A. S., et al. (2014). "Central memory CD8+ T lymphocytes mediate lung allograft acceptance." J Clin Invest 124(3): 1130-1143. PubMed
Memory T lymphocytes are commonly viewed as a major barrier for long-term survival of organ allografts and are thought to accelerate rejection responses due to their rapid infiltration into allografts, low threshold for activation, and ability to produce inflammatory mediators. Because memory T cells are usually associated with rejection, preclinical protocols have been developed to target this population in transplant recipients. Here, using a murine model, we found that costimulatory blockade-mediated lung allograft acceptance depended on the rapid infiltration of the graft by central memory CD8+ T cells (CD44(hi)CD62L(hi)CCR7+). Chemokine receptor signaling and alloantigen recognition were required for trafficking of these memory T cells to lung allografts. Intravital 2-photon imaging revealed that CCR7 expression on CD8+ T cells was critical for formation of stable synapses with antigen-presenting cells, resulting in IFN-gamma production, which induced NO and downregulated alloimmune responses. Thus, we describe a critical role for CD8+ central memory T cells in lung allograft acceptance and highlight the need for tailored approaches for tolerance induction in the lung.
Rabant, M., et al. (2013). "CD40-independent help by memory CD4 T cells induces pathogenic alloantibody but does not lead to long-lasting humoral immunity." Am J Transplant 13(11): 2831-2841. PubMed
CD40/CD154 interactions are essential for productive antibody responses to T-dependent antigens. Memory CD4 T cells express accelerated helper functions and are less dependent on costimulation when compared with naive T cells. Here, we report that donor-reactive memory CD4 T cells can deliver help to CD40-deficient B cells and induce high titers of IgG alloantibodies that contribute to heart allograft rejection in CD40-/- heart recipients. While cognate interactions between memory helper T and B cells are crucial for CD40-independent help, this process is not accompanied by germinal center formation and occurs despite inducible costimulatory blockade. Consistent with the extrafollicular nature of T/B cell interactions, CD40-independent help fails to maintain stable levels of serum alloantibody and induce differentiation of long-lived plasma cells and memory B cells. In summary, our data suggest that while CD40-independent help by memory CD4 T cells is sufficient to induce high levels of pathogenic alloantibody, it does not sustain long-lasting anti-donor humoral immunity and B cell memory responses. This information may guide the future use of CD40/CD154 targeting therapies in transplant recipients containing donor-reactive memory T cells.
Charbonnier, L. M., et al. (2012). "CTLA4-Ig restores rejection of MHC class-II mismatched allografts by disabling IL-2-expanded regulatory T cells." Am J Transplant 12(9): 2313-2321. PubMed
Allograft acceptance and tolerance can be achieved by different approaches including inhibition of effector T cell responses through CD28-dependent costimulatory blockade and induction of peripheral regulatory T cells (Tregs). The observation that Tregs rely upon CD28-dependent signals for development and peripheral expansion, raises the intriguing possibility of a counterproductive consequence of CTLA4-Ig administration on tolerance induction. We have investigated the possible negative effect of CTLA4-Ig on Treg-mediated tolerance induction using a mouse model of single MHC class II-mismatched skin grafts in which long-term acceptance was achieved by short-term administration of IL-2/anti-IL-2 complex. CTLA4-Ig treatment was found to abolish Treg-dependent acceptance in this model, restoring skin allograft rejection and Th1 alloreactivity. CTLA4-Ig inhibited IL-2-driven Treg expansion, and prevented in particular the occurrence of ICOS(+) Tregs endowed with potent suppressive capacities. Restoring CD28 signaling was sufficient to counteract the deleterious effect of CTLA4-Ig on Treg expansion and functionality, in keeping with the hypothesis that costimulatory blockade inhibits Treg expansion and function by limiting the delivery of essential CD28-dependent signals. Inhibition of regulatory T cell function should therefore be taken into account when designing tolerance protocols based on costimulatory blockade.
Kadri, N., et al. (2012). "CD4(+) type II NKT cells mediate ICOS and programmed death-1-dependent regulation of type 1 diabetes." J Immunol 188(7): 3138-3149. PubMed
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease that results from T cell-mediated destruction of pancreatic beta cells. CD1d-restricted NKT lymphocytes have the ability to regulate immunity, including autoimmunity. We previously demonstrated that CD1d-restricted type II NKT cells, which carry diverse TCRs, prevented T1D in the NOD mouse model for the human disease. In this study, we show that CD4(+) 24alphabeta type II NKT cells, but not CD4/CD8 double-negative NKT cells, were sufficient to downregulate diabetogenic CD4(+) BDC2.5 NOD T cells in adoptive transfer experiments. CD4(+) 24alphabeta NKT cells exhibited a memory phenotype including high ICOS expression, increased cytokine production, and limited display of NK cell markers, compared with double-negative 24alphabeta NKT cells. Blocking of ICOS or the programmed death-1/programmed death ligand 1 pathway was shown to abolish the regulation that occurred in the pancreas draining lymph nodes. To our knowledge, these results provide for the first time cellular and molecular information on how type II CD1d-restricted NKT cells regulate T1D.