About InVivoMAb anti-mouse CD3ε
The 145-2C11 monoclonal antibody reacts with mouse CD3ε, a 20 kDa transmembrane cell-surface protein that belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. CD3ε is one of five polypeptide chains that combine to form the TCR complex. CD3ε is expressed on T lymphocytes, NK-T cells, and to varying degrees on developing thymocytes. CD3 plays roles in TCR signaling, T lymphocyte activation, and antigen recognition. The 145-2C11 antibody has been shown to induce T lymphocyte activation, proliferation, and apoptosis in vitro via binding and stimulating the TCR. When used in vivo the antibody is reported to produce T cell activation, anergy, or death. Activation of resting T cells in vivo results in cytokine release and subsequent toxicity caused by Ab-mediated cross-linking of T cells and Fcγ receptor (FcR)-bearing cells. For this reason, the non-FcR-binding 145-2C11 f(ab')2 fragments are more commonly used for in vivo applications. The 145-2C11 antibody has been reported to block the binding of the 17A2 antibody to CD3ε+ T lymphocytes.
InVivoMAb anti-mouse CD3ε Specifications
|Isotype||Armenian Hamster IgG1|
|Recommended Isotype Control(s)|
|Recommended Dilution Buffer|
|Immunogen||Mouse BM10-37 cytotoxic T cells|
|Sterility||0.2 μM filtered|
|Production||Purified from tissue culture supernatant in an animal free facility|
|Molecular Weight||150 kDa|
|Storage||The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.|
InVivoMAb anti-mouse CD3ε (Clone: 145-2C11)
Glasner, A., et al. (2018). “NKp46 Receptor-Mediated Interferon-gamma Production by Natural Killer Cells Increases Fibronectin 1 to Alter Tumor Architecture and Control Metastasis.” Immunity 48(1): 107-119 e104. PubMed
Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphoid cells, and their presence within human tumors correlates with better prognosis. However, the mechanisms by which NK cells control tumors in vivo are unclear. Here, we used reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) imaging in humans and in mice to visualize tumor architecture in vivo. We demonstrated that signaling via the NK cell receptor NKp46 (human) and Ncr1 (mouse) induced interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) secretion from intratumoral NK cells. NKp46- and Ncr1-mediated IFN-gamma production led to the increased expression of the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin 1 (FN1) in the tumors, which altered primary tumor architecture and resulted in decreased metastases formation. Injection of IFN-gamma into tumor-bearing mice or transgenic overexpression of Ncr1 in NK cells in mice resulted in decreased metastasis formation. Thus, we have defined a mechanism of NK cell-mediated control of metastases in vivo that may help develop NK cell-dependent cancer therapies.
Lacher, S. M., et al. (2018). “NF-kappaB inducing kinase (NIK) is an essential post-transcriptional regulator of T-cell activation affecting F-actin dynamics and TCR signaling.” J Autoimmun 94: 110-121. PubMed
NF-kappaB inducing kinase (NIK) is the key protein of the non-canonical NF-kappaB pathway and is important for the development of lymph nodes and other secondary immune organs. We elucidated the specific role of NIK in T cells using T-cell specific NIK-deficient (NIK(DeltaT)) mice. Despite showing normal development of lymphoid organs, NIK(DeltaT) mice were resistant to induction of CNS autoimmunity. T cells from NIK(DeltaT) mice were deficient in late priming, failed to up-regulate T-bet and to transmigrate into the CNS. Proteomic analysis of activated NIK(-/-) T cells showed de-regulated expression of proteins involved in the formation of the immunological synapse: in particular, proteins involved in cytoskeleton dynamics. In line with this we found that NIK-deficient T cells were hampered in phosphorylation of Zap70, LAT, AKT, ERK1/2 and PLCgamma upon TCR engagement. Hence, our data disclose a hitherto unknown function of NIK in T-cell priming and differentiation.
Wendland, K., et al. (2018). “Retinoic Acid Signaling in Thymic Epithelial Cells Regulates Thymopoiesis.” J Immunol 201(2): 524-532. PubMed
Despite the essential role of thymic epithelial cells (TEC) in T cell development, the signals regulating TEC differentiation and homeostasis remain incompletely understood. In this study, we show a key in vivo role for the vitamin A metabolite, retinoic acid (RA), in TEC homeostasis. In the absence of RA signaling in TEC, cortical TEC (cTEC) and CD80(lo)MHC class II(lo) medullary TEC displayed subset-specific alterations in gene expression, which in cTEC included genes involved in epithelial proliferation, development, and differentiation. Mice whose TEC were unable to respond to RA showed increased cTEC proliferation, an accumulation of stem cell Ag-1(hi) cTEC, and, in early life, a decrease in medullary TEC numbers. These alterations resulted in reduced thymic cellularity in early life, a reduction in CD4 single-positive and CD8 single-positive numbers in both young and adult mice, and enhanced peripheral CD8(+) T cell survival upon TCR stimulation. Collectively, our results identify RA as a regulator of TEC homeostasis that is essential for TEC function and normal thymopoiesis.
Ron-Harel, N., et al. (2016). “Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Proteome Remodeling Promote One-Carbon Metabolism for T Cell Activation.” Cell Metab 24(1): 104-117. PubMed
Naive T cell stimulation activates anabolic metabolism to fuel the transition from quiescence to growth and proliferation. Here we show that naive CD4(+) T cell activation induces a unique program of mitochondrial biogenesis and remodeling. Using mass spectrometry, we quantified protein dynamics during T cell activation. We identified substantial remodeling of the mitochondrial proteome over the first 24 hr of T cell activation to generate mitochondria with a distinct metabolic signature, with one-carbon metabolism as the most induced pathway. Salvage pathways and mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism, fed by serine, contribute to purine and thymidine synthesis to enable T cell proliferation and survival. Genetic inhibition of the mitochondrial serine catabolic enzyme SHMT2 impaired T cell survival in culture and antigen-specific T cell abundance in vivo. Thus, during T cell activation, mitochondrial proteome remodeling generates specialized mitochondria with enhanced one-carbon metabolism that is critical for T cell activation and survival.
Awe, O., et al. (2015). “PU.1 Expression in T Follicular Helper Cells Limits CD40L-Dependent Germinal Center B Cell Development.” J Immunol. PubMed
PU.1 is an ETS family transcription factor that is important for the development of multiple hematopoietic cell lineages. Previous work demonstrated a critical role for PU.1 in promoting Th9 development and in limiting Th2 cytokine production. Whether PU.1 has functions in other Th lineages is not clear. In this study, we examined the effects of ectopic expression of PU.1 in CD4+ T cells and observed decreased expression of genes involved with the function of T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, including Il21 and Tnfsf5 (encoding CD40L). T cells from conditional mutant mice that lack expression of PU.1 in T cells (Sfpi1lck-/-) demonstrated increased production of CD40L and IL-21 in vitro. Following adjuvant-dependent or adjuvant-independent immunization, we observed that Sfpi1lck-/- mice had increased numbers of Tfh cells, increased germinal center B cells (GCB cells), and increased Ab production in vivo. This correlated with increased expression of IL-21 and CD40L in Tfh cells from Sfpi1lck-/- mice compared with control mice. Finally, although blockade of IL-21 did not affect GCB cells in Sfpi1lck-/- mice, anti-CD40L treatment of immunized Sfpi1lck-/- mice decreased GCB cell numbers and Ag-specific Ig concentrations. Together, these data indicate an inhibitory role for PU.1 in the function of Tfh cells, germinal centers, and Tfh-dependent humoral immunity.
Gu, A. D., et al. (2015). “A critical role for transcription factor Smad4 in T cell function that is independent of transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling.” Immunity 42(1): 68-79. PubMed
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) suppresses T cell function to maintain self-tolerance and to promote tumor immune evasion. Yet how Smad4, a transcription factor component of TGF-beta signaling, regulates T cell function remains unclear. Here we have demonstrated an essential role for Smad4 in promoting T cell function during autoimmunity and anti-tumor immunity. Smad4 deletion rescued the lethal autoimmunity resulting from transforming growth factor-beta receptor (TGF-betaR) deletion and compromised T-cell-mediated tumor rejection. Although Smad4 was dispensable for T cell generation, homeostasis, and effector function, it was essential for T cell proliferation after activation in vitro and in vivo. The transcription factor Myc was identified to mediate Smad4-controlled T cell proliferation. This study thus reveals a requirement of Smad4 for T-cell-mediated autoimmunity and tumor rejection, which is beyond the current paradigm. It highlights a TGF-betaR-independent role for Smad4 in promoting T cell function, autoimmunity, and anti-tumor immunity.
Huang, Y., et al. (2015). “CRK proteins selectively regulate T cell migration into inflamed tissues.” J Clin Invest 125(3): 1019-1032. PubMed
Effector T cell migration into inflamed sites greatly exacerbates tissue destruction and disease severity in inflammatory diseases, including graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). T cell migration into such sites depends heavily on regulated adhesion and migration, but the signaling pathways that coordinate these functions downstream of chemokine receptors are largely unknown. Using conditional knockout mice, we found that T cells lacking the adaptor proteins CRK and CRK-like (CRKL) exhibit reduced integrin-dependent adhesion, chemotaxis, and diapedesis. Moreover, these two closely related proteins exhibited substantial functional redundancy, as ectopic expression of either protein rescued defects in T cells lacking both CRK and CRKL. We determined that CRK proteins coordinate with the RAP guanine nucleotide exchange factor C3G and the adhesion docking molecule CASL to activate the integrin regulatory GTPase RAP1. CRK proteins were required for effector T cell trafficking into sites of inflammation, but not for migration to lymphoid organs. In a murine bone marrow transplantation model, the differential migration of CRK/CRKL-deficient T cells resulted in efficient graft-versus-leukemia responses with minimal GVHD. Together, the results from our studies show that CRK family proteins selectively regulate T cell adhesion and migration at effector sites and suggest that these proteins have potential as therapeutic targets for preventing GVHD.
Kim, Y. U., et al. (2015). “Regulation of autoimmune germinal center reactions in lupus-prone BXD2 mice by follicular helper T cells.” PLoS One 10(3): e0120294. PubMed
BXD2 mice spontaneously develop autoantibodies and subsequent glomerulonephritis, offering a useful animal model to study autoimmune lupus. Although initial studies showed a critical contribution of IL-17 and Th17 cells in mediating autoimmune B cell responses in BXD2 mice, the role of follicular helper T (Tfh) cells remains incompletely understood. We found that both the frequency of Th17 cells and the levels of IL-17 in circulation in BXD2 mice were comparable to those of wild-type. By contrast, the frequency of PD-1+ CXCR5+ Tfh cells was significantly increased in BXD2 mice compared with wild-type mice, while the frequency of PD-1+ CXCR5+ Foxp3+ follicular regulatory T (Tfr) cells was reduced in the former group. The frequency of Tfh cells rather than that of Th17 cells was positively correlated with the frequency of germinal center B cells as well as the levels of autoantibodies to dsDNA. More importantly, CXCR5+ CD4+ T cells isolated from BXD2 mice induced the production of IgG from naive B cells in an IL-21-dependent manner, while CCR6+ CD4+ T cells failed to do so. These results together demonstrate that Tfh cells rather than Th17 cells contribute to the autoimmune germinal center reactions in BXD2 mice.
Liu, H., et al. (2015). “The Immune Adaptor SLP-76 Binds to SUMO-RANGAP1 at Nuclear Pore Complex Filaments to Regulate Nuclear Import of Transcription Factors in T Cells.” Mol Cell 59(5): 840-849. PubMed
While immune cell adaptors regulate proximal T cell signaling, direct regulation of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) has not been reported. NPC has cytoplasmic filaments composed of RanGAP1 and RanBP2 with the potential to interact with cytoplasmic mediators. Here, we show that the immune cell adaptor SLP-76 binds directly to SUMO-RanGAP1 of cytoplasmic fibrils of the NPC, and that this interaction is needed for optimal NFATc1 and NF-kappaB p65 nuclear entry in T cells. Transmission electron microscopy showed anti-SLP-76 cytoplasmic labeling of the majority of NPCs in anti-CD3 activated T cells. Further, SUMO-RanGAP1 bound to the N-terminal lysine 56 of SLP-76 where the interaction was needed for optimal RanGAP1-NPC localization and GAP exchange activity. While the SLP-76-RanGAP1 (K56E) mutant had no effect on proximal signaling, it impaired NF-ATc1 and p65/RelA nuclear entry and in vivo responses to OVA peptide. Overall, we have identified SLP-76 as a direct regulator of nuclear pore function in T cells.
Xu, H., et al. (2015). “Regulation of bifurcating B cell trajectories by mutual antagonism between transcription factors IRF4 and IRF8.” Nat Immunol. doi: 10.1038/ni.3287. PubMed
Upon recognition of antigen, B cells undertake a bifurcated response in which some cells rapidly differentiate into plasmablasts while others undergo affinity maturation in germinal centers (GCs). Here we identified a double-negative feedback loop between the transcription factors IRF4 and IRF8 that regulated the initial developmental bifurcation of activated B cells as well as the GC response. IRF8 dampened signaling via the B cell antigen receptor (BCR), facilitated antigen-specific interaction with helper T cells, and promoted antibody affinity maturation while antagonizing IRF4-driven differentiation of plasmablasts. Genomic analysis revealed concentration-dependent actions of IRF4 and IRF8 in regulating distinct gene-expression programs. Stochastic modeling suggested that the double-negative feedback was sufficient to initiate bifurcation of the B cell developmental trajectories.
Bertin, S., et al. (2014). “The ion channel TRPV1 regulates the activation and proinflammatory properties of CD4(+) T cells.” Nat Immunol 15(11): 1055-1063. PubMed
TRPV1 is a Ca(2+)-permeable channel studied mostly as a pain receptor in sensory neurons. However, its role in other cell types is poorly understood. Here we found that TRPV1 was functionally expressed in CD4(+) T cells, where it acted as a non-store-operated Ca(2+) channel and contributed to T cell antigen receptor (TCR)-induced Ca(2+) influx, TCR signaling and T cell activation. In models of T cell-mediated colitis, TRPV1 promoted colitogenic T cell responses and intestinal inflammation. Furthermore, genetic and pharmacological inhibition of TRPV1 in human CD4(+) T cells recapitulated the phenotype of mouse Trpv1(-/-) CD4(+) T cells. Our findings suggest that inhibition of TRPV1 could represent a new therapeutic strategy for restraining proinflammatory T cell responses.
Rabenstein, H., et al. (2014). “Differential kinetics of antigen dependency of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.” J Immunol 192(8): 3507-3517. PubMed
Ag recognition via the TCR is necessary for the expansion of specific T cells that then contribute to adaptive immunity as effector and memory cells. Because CD4+ and CD8+ T cells differ in terms of their priming APCs and MHC ligands we compared their requirements of Ag persistence during their expansion phase side by side. Proliferation and effector differentiation of TCR transgenic and polyclonal mouse T cells were thus analyzed after transient and continuous TCR signals. Following equally strong stimulation, CD4+ T cell proliferation depended on prolonged Ag presence, whereas CD8+ T cells were able to divide and differentiate into effector cells despite discontinued Ag presentation. CD4+ T cell proliferation was neither affected by Th lineage or memory differentiation nor blocked by coinhibitory signals or missing inflammatory stimuli. Continued CD8+ T cell proliferation was truly independent of self-peptide/MHC-derived signals. The subset divergence was also illustrated by surprisingly broad transcriptional differences supporting a stronger propensity of CD8+ T cells to programmed expansion. These T cell data indicate an intrinsic difference between CD4+ and CD8+ T cells regarding the processing of TCR signals for proliferation. We also found that the presentation of a MHC class II-restricted peptide is more efficiently prolonged by dendritic cell activation in vivo than a class I bound one. In summary, our data demonstrate that CD4+ T cells require continuous stimulation for clonal expansion, whereas CD8+ T cells can divide following a much shorter TCR signal.
Tang, W., et al. (2014). “The oncoprotein and transcriptional regulator Bcl-3 governs plasticity and pathogenicity of autoimmune T cells.” Immunity 41(4): 555-566. PubMed
Bcl-3 is an atypical member of the IkappaB family that modulates transcription in the nucleus via association with p50 (NF-kappaB1) or p52 (NF-kappaB2) homodimers. Despite evidence attesting to the overall physiologic importance of Bcl-3, little is known about its cell-specific functions or mechanisms. Here we demonstrate a T-cell-intrinsic function of Bcl-3 in autoimmunity. Bcl-3-deficient T cells failed to induce disease in T cell transfer-induced colitis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. The protection against disease correlated with a decrease in Th1 cells that produced the cytokines IFN-gamma and GM-CSF and an increase in Th17 cells. Although differentiation into Th1 cells was not impaired in the absence of Bcl-3, differentiated Th1 cells converted to less-pathogenic Th17-like cells, in part via mechanisms involving expression of the RORgammat transcription factor. Thus, Bcl-3 constrained Th1 cell plasticity and promoted pathogenicity by blocking conversion to Th17-like cells, revealing a unique type of regulation that shapes adaptive immunity.
Vegran, F., et al. (2014). “The transcription factor IRF1 dictates the IL-21-dependent anticancer functions of TH9 cells.” Nat Immunol 15(8): 758-766. PubMed
The TH9 subset of helper T cells was initially shown to contribute to the induction of autoimmune and allergic diseases, but subsequent evidence has suggested that these cells also exert antitumor activities. However, the molecular events that account for their effector properties are elusive. Here we found that the transcription factor IRF1 enhanced the effector function of TH9 cells and dictated their anticancer properties. Under TH9-skewing conditions, interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) induced phosphorylation of the transcription factor STAT1 and subsequent expression of IRF1, which bound to the promoters of Il9 and Il21 and enhanced secretion of the cytokines IL-9 and IL-21 from TH9 cells. Furthermore, IL-1beta-induced TH9 cells exerted potent anticancer functions in an IRF1- and IL-21-dependent manner. Our findings thus identify IRF1 as a target for controlling the function of TH9 cells.
Berger, H., et al. (2013). “SOCS3 transactivation by PPARgamma prevents IL-17-driven cancer growth.” Cancer Res 73(12): 3578-3590. PubMed
Activation of the transcription factor PPARgamma by the n-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is implicated in controlling proinflammatory cytokine secretion, but the intracellular signaling pathways engaged by PPARgamma are incompletely characterized. Here, we identify the adapter-encoding gene SOCS3 as a critical transcriptional target of PPARgamma. SOCS3 promoter binding and gene transactivation by PPARgamma was associated with a repression in differentiation of proinflammatory T-helper (TH)17 cells. Accordingly, TH17 cells induced in vitro displayed increased SOCS3 expression and diminished capacity to produce interleukin (IL)-17 following activation of PPARgamma by DHA. Furthermore, naive CD4 T cells derived from mice fed a DHA-enriched diet displayed less capability to differentiate into TH17 cells. In two different mouse models of cancer, DHA prevented tumor outgrowth and angiogenesis in an IL-17-dependent manner. Altogether, our results uncover a novel molecular pathway by which PPARgamma-induced SOCS3 expression prevents IL-17-mediated cancer growth.
Sledzinska, A., et al. (2013). “TGF-beta signalling is required for CD4(+) T cell homeostasis but dispensable for regulatory T cell function.” PLoS Biol 11(10): e1001674. PubMed
TGF-beta is widely held to be critical for the maintenance and function of regulatory T (T(reg)) cells and thus peripheral tolerance. This is highlighted by constitutive ablation of TGF-beta receptor (TR) during thymic development in mice, which leads to a lethal autoimmune syndrome. Here we describe that TGF-beta-driven peripheral tolerance is not regulated by TGF-beta signalling on mature CD4(+) T cells. Inducible TR2 ablation specifically on CD4(+) T cells did not result in a lethal autoinflammation. Transfer of these TR2-deficient CD4(+) T cells to lymphopenic recipients resulted in colitis, but not overt autoimmunity. In contrast, thymic ablation of TR2 in combination with lymphopenia led to lethal multi-organ inflammation. Interestingly, deletion of TR2 on mature CD4(+) T cells does not result in the collapse of the T(reg) cell population as observed in constitutive models. Instead, a pronounced enlargement of both regulatory and effector memory T cell pools was observed. This expansion is cell-intrinsic and seems to be caused by increased T cell receptor sensitivity independently of common gamma chain-dependent cytokine signals. The expression of Foxp3 and other regulatory T cells markers was not dependent on TGF-beta signalling and the TR2-deficient T(reg) cells retained their suppressive function both in vitro and in vivo. In summary, absence of TGF-beta signalling on mature CD4(+) T cells is not responsible for breakdown of peripheral tolerance, but rather controls homeostasis of mature T cells in adult mice.
Goswami, R., et al. (2012). “STAT6-dependent regulation of Th9 development.” J Immunol 188(3): 968-975. PubMed
Th cell effector subsets develop in response to specific cytokine environments. The development of a particular cytokine-secreting pattern requires an integration of signals that may promote the development of opposing pathways. A recent example of this paradigm is the IL-9-secreting Th9 cell that develops in response to TGF-beta and IL-4, cytokines that, in isolation, promote the development of inducible regulatory T cells and Th2 cells, respectively. To determine how the balance of these factors results in priming for IL-9 secretion, we examined the effects of each pathway on transcription factors that regulate Th cell differentiation. We demonstrated that TGF-beta induces the PU.1-encoding Sfpi1 locus and that this is independent of IL-4-induced STAT6 activation. IL-4-activated STAT6 is required for repressing the expression of T-bet and Foxp3 in Th9 cells, transcription factors that inhibit IL-9 production, and STAT6 is required for the induction of IRF4, which promotes Th9 development. These data established a transcription factor network that regulates IL-9 and demonstrated how combinations of cytokine signals generate cytokine-secreting potential by altering the expression of a panel of transcription factors.
Peng, B., et al. (2009). “Anti-CD3 antibodies modulate anti-factor VIII immune responses in hemophilia A mice after factor VIII plasmid-mediated gene therapy.” Blood 114(20): 4373-4382. PubMed
One major obstacle in gene therapy is the generation of immune responses directed against transgene product. Five consecutive anti-CD3 treatments concomitant with factor VIII (FVIII) plasmid injection prevented the formation of inhibitory antibodies against FVIII and achieved persistent, therapeutic levels of FVIII gene expression in treated hemophilia A mice. Repeated plasmid gene transfer is applicable in tolerized mice without eliciting immune responses. Anti-CD3 treatment significantly depleted both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, whereas increased transforming growth factor-beta levels in plasma and the frequency of both CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ and CD4+CD25-Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in the initial few weeks after treatment. Although prior depletion of CD4+CD25+ cells did not abrogate tolerance induction, adoptive transfer of CD4+ cells from tolerized mice at 6 weeks after treatment protected recipient mice from anti-FVIII immune responses. Anti-CD3-treated mice mounted immune responses against both T-dependent and T-independent neo-antigens, indicating that anti-CD3 did not hamper the immune systems in the long term. Concomitant FVIII plasmid + anti-CD3 treatment induced long-term tolerance specific to FVIII via a mechanism involving the increase in transforming growth factor-beta levels and the generation of adaptive FVIII-specific CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells at the periphery. Furthermore, anti-CD3 can reduce the titers of preexisting anti-FVIII inhibitory antibodies in hemophilia A mice.
Dardalhon, V., et al. (2008). “IL-4 inhibits TGF-beta-induced Foxp3+ T cells and, together with TGF-beta, generates IL-9+ IL-10+ Foxp3(-) effector T cells.” Nat Immunol 9(12): 1347-1355. PubMed
Transcription factor Foxp3 is critical for generating regulatory T cells (T(reg) cells). Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) induces Foxp3 and suppressive T(reg) cells from naive T cells, whereas interleukin 6 (IL-6) inhibits the generation of inducible T(reg) cells. Here we show that IL-4 blocked the generation of TGF-beta-induced Foxp3(+) T(reg) cells and instead induced a population of T helper cells that produced IL-9 and IL-10. The IL-9(+)IL-10(+) T cells demonstrated no regulatory properties despite producing abundant IL-10. Adoptive transfer of IL-9(+)IL-10(+) T cells into recombination-activating gene 1-deficient mice induced colitis and peripheral neuritis, the severity of which was aggravated if the IL-9(+)IL-10(+) T cells were transferred with CD45RB(hi) CD4(+) effector T cells. Thus IL-9(+)IL-10(+) T cells lack suppressive function and constitute a distinct population of helper-effector T cells that promote tissue inflammation.