About InVivoPlus mouse IgG2b isotype control, unknown specificity
The MPC-11 monoclonal antibody is ideal for use as a non-reactive isotype-matched control for mouse IgG2b antibodies in most in vivo and in vitro applications.
InVivoPlus mouse IgG2b isotype control, unknown specificity Specifications
|Isotype||Mouse IgG2b, κ|
|Recommended Dilution Buffer|
|Sterility||0.2 μM filtered|
|Production||Purified from tissue culture supernatant in an animal free facility|
|Molecular Weight||150 kDa|
|*Murine Pathogen Test Results|
|Storage||The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.|
InVivoPlus mouse IgG2b isotype control, unknown specificity (Clone: MPC-11)
Turnis, M. E., et al. (2016). “Interleukin-35 Limits Anti-Tumor Immunity.” Immunity 44(2): 316-329. PubMed
Regulatory T (Treg) cells pose a major barrier to effective anti-tumor immunity. Although Treg cell depletion enhances tumor rejection, the ensuing autoimmune sequelae limits its utility in the clinic and highlights the need for limiting Treg cell activity within the tumor microenvironment. Interleukin-35 (IL-35) is a Treg cell-secreted cytokine that inhibits T cell proliferation and function. Using an IL-35 reporter mouse, we observed substantial enrichment of IL-35(+) Treg cells in tumors. Neutralization with an IL-35-specific antibody or Treg cell-restricted deletion of IL-35 production limited tumor growth in multiple murine models of human cancer. Limiting intratumoral IL-35 enhanced T cell proliferation, effector function, antigen-specific responses, and long-term T cell memory. Treg cell-derived IL-35 promoted the expression of multiple inhibitory receptors (PD1, TIM3, LAG3), thereby facilitating intratumoral T cell exhaustion. These findings reveal previously unappreciated roles for IL-35 in limiting anti-tumor immunity and contributing to T cell dysfunction in the tumor microenvironment.
Barreira da Silva, R., et al. (2015). “Dipeptidylpeptidase 4 inhibition enhances lymphocyte trafficking, improving both naturally occurring tumor immunity and immunotherapy.” Nat Immunol 16(8): 850-858. PubMed
The success of antitumor immune responses depends on the infiltration of solid tumors by effector T cells, a process guided by chemokines. Here we show that in vivo post-translational processing of chemokines by dipeptidylpeptidase 4 (DPP4, also known as CD26) limits lymphocyte migration to sites of inflammation and tumors. Inhibition of DPP4 enzymatic activity enhanced tumor rejection by preserving biologically active CXCL10 and increasing trafficking into the tumor by lymphocytes expressing the counter-receptor CXCR3. Furthermore, DPP4 inhibition improved adjuvant-based immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer and checkpoint blockade. These findings provide direct in vivo evidence for control of lymphocyte trafficking via CXCL10 cleavage and support the use of DPP4 inhibitors for stabilizing biologically active forms of chemokines as a strategy to enhance tumor immunotherapy.
Le Saout, C., et al. (2014). “Chronic exposure to type-I IFN under lymphopenic conditions alters CD4 T cell homeostasis.” PLoS Pathog 10(3): e1003976. PubMed
HIV infection and the associated chronic immune activation alter T cell homeostasis leading to CD4 T cell depletion and CD8 T cell expansion. The mechanisms behind these outcomes are not totally defined and only partially explained by the direct cytopathic effect of the virus. In this manuscript, we addressed the impact of lymphopenia and chronic exposure to IFN-alpha on T cell homeostasis. In a lymphopenic murine model, this interaction led to decreased CD4 counts and CD8 T cell expansion in association with an increase in the Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 1 (STAT1) levels resulting in enhanced CD4 T cell responsiveness to IFN-alpha. Thus, in the setting of HIV infection, chronic stimulation of this pathway could be detrimental for CD4 T cell homeostasis.
Lamere, M. W., et al. (2011). “Regulation of antinucleoprotein IgG by systemic vaccination and its effect on influenza virus clearance.” J Virol 85(10): 5027-5035. PubMed
Seasonal influenza epidemics recur due to antigenic drift of envelope glycoprotein antigens and immune evasion of circulating viruses. Additionally, antigenic shift can lead to influenza pandemics. Thus, a universal vaccine that protects against multiple influenza virus strains could alleviate the continuing impact of this virus on human health. In mice, accelerated clearance of a new viral strain (cross-protection) can be elicited by prior infection (heterosubtypic immunity) or by immunization with the highly conserved internal nucleoprotein (NP). Both heterosubtypic immunity and NP-immune protection require antibody production. Here, we show that systemic immunization with NP readily accelerated clearance of a 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus isolate in an antibody-dependent manner. However, human immunization with trivalent inactivated influenza virus vaccine (TIV) only rarely and modestly boosted existing levels of anti-NP IgG. Similar results were observed in mice, although the reaction could be enhanced with adjuvants, by adjusting the stoichiometry among NP and other vaccine components, and by increasing the interval between TIV prime and boost. Importantly, mouse heterosubtypic immunity that had waned over several months could be enhanced by injecting purified anti-NP IgG or by boosting with NP protein, correlating with a long-lived increase in anti-NP antibody titers. Thus, current immunization strategies poorly induce NP-immune antibody that is nonetheless capable of contributing to long-lived cross-protection. The high conservation of NP antigen and the known longevity of antibody responses suggest that the antiviral activity of anti-NP IgG may provide a critically needed component of a universal influenza vaccine.
Larena, M., et al. (2011). “Pivotal role of antibody and subsidiary contribution of CD8+ T cells to recovery from infection in a murine model of Japanese encephalitis.” J Virol 85(11): 5446-5455. PubMed
The immunological correlates for recovery from primary Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection in humans and experimental animals remain poorly defined. To investigate the relative importance of the adaptive immune responses, we have established a mouse model for Japanese encephalitis in which a low-dose virus inoculum was administered into the footpads of adult C57BL/6 mice. In this model, ~60% of the mice developed a fatal encephalitis and a virus burden in the central nervous system (CNS). Using mice lacking B cells (muMT(-/-) mice) and immune B cell transfer to wild-type mice, we show a critically important role for humoral immunity in preventing virus spread to the CNS. T cell help played an essential part in the maintenance of an effective antibody response necessary to combat the infection, since mice lacking major histocompatibility complex class II showed truncated IgM and blunted IgG responses and uniformly high lethality. JEV infection resulted in extensive CD8(+) T cell activation, judged by upregulation of surface markers CD69 and CD25 and cytokine production after stimulation with a JEV NS4B protein-derived H-2D(b)-binding peptide and trafficking of virus-immune CD8(+) T cells into the CNS. However, no significant effect of CD8(+) T cells on the survival phenotype was found, which was corroborated in knockout mice lacking key effector molecules (Fas receptor, perforin, or granzymes) of cytolytic pathways triggered by T lymphocytes. Accordingly, CD8(+) T cells are mostly dispensable for recovery from infection with JEV. This finding highlights the conflicting role that CD8(+) T cells play in the pathogenesis of JEV and closely related encephalitic flaviviruses such as West Nile virus.