Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is an inhibitory receptor expressed on T-cells that promotes apoptosis of inflammatory T-cells and inhibits apoptosis of anti-inflammatory regulatory T-cells, thereby promoting self-tolerance and preventing autoimmune diseases. To evade immune surveillance, tumor cells often exploit this system by over-expressing PD-L1, the ligand which binds to and activates PD-1. Anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies are used to block the binding of PD-L1 to PD-1 which allows the immune system to find and kill tumor cells.
A Comparison of PD-1 Antibody Clones
Bio X Cell offers three distinct anti-mouse PD-1 antibody clones: RMP1-14, 29F.1A12, and J43. All three antibodies function through the same mechanism – they bind to PD-1 and sterically block the binding of PD-1 to PD-1 Ligands, thereby blocking PD-1 signaling (as shown in the image above).
All three antibodies are ideally suited for in vivo blocking of PD-1 signaling in mouse models and have extensive multi-year publication records backing this application. The differences between these antibodies lie in the additional reported applications in publications, the isotypes, and the origins as shown in the table below.
Among these anti-PD-1 antibodies, the RMP1-14 clone has the most extensive publication record for in vivo blocking of PD-1 signaling. Importantly, however, the reported applications for the RMP1-14 antibody are limited to in vivo blocking of PD-1/PD-L signaling only.
Alternatively, the 29F.1A12 clone also has an extensive publication record for in vivo PD-1 blocking but can also be used for in vitro PD-1 neutralization, western blotting, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and flow cytometry. The J43 clone fits a similar description. This can be advantageous for researchers who wish to run in vitro or diagnostic experiments in parallel with in vivo experiments.
The next step in making the antibody selection that is best for your research is to search the publication record for each clone and find an example of published data that uses a similar experimental approach to your own. There may be one clone that is more often used for your specific mouse model and experimental set-up.
Bio X Cell provides a list of selected references for all of our antibodies which can be found on each product page. Additional references can be found using search engines such as Google Scholar and PubMed. Searching for the clone name of the antibody in combination with experiment-specific search terms, for example, “RMP1-14 MC38 BALB/c”, is the best approach to finding applicable references. These references will help you make the antibody selection that best fits your research.
Detailed Comparison of PD-1 Antibody Clones
|InVivoPlus™ Catalog no.||BP0146||BP0273||BP0033-2|
|Isotype||Rat IgG2a, κ||Rat IgG2a||Armenian Hamster IgG|
|First Citation||In 2003 by Takanori Kanai et al||In 2003 by Spencer C. Liang et al||In 1996 by Yasutoshi Agata et al|
|Immunogen||Syrian Hamster BKH cells transfected with mouse PD-1 cDNA||Recombinant PD-1-Ig fusion protein||Syrian Hamster BKH cells transfected with mouse PD-1 cDNA|
|Stabilizers or Preservatives||Free||Free||Free|
|Size||5, 25, 50, 100 mg and more||5, 25, 50, 100 mg and more||5, 25, 50, 100 mg and more|
|Availability||In stock||In stock||In stock|
|Recommended Isotype Control||InVivoPlus™ rat IgG2a isotype control, anti-trinitrophenol||InVivoPlus™ rat IgG2a isotype control, anti-trinitrophenol||InVivoPlus™ polyclonal Armenian hamster IgG|
|Recommended Dilution Buffer||InVivoPure™ pH 7.0 Dilution Buffer||InVivoPure™ pH 7.0 Dilution Buffer||InVivoPure™ pH 6.5 Dilution Buffer|
All of Bio X Cell’s InVivoPlus™ antibodies, including these anti-PD-1 clones, are rigorously tested to ensure that they are murine pathogen free, have an endotoxin level of <1EU/mg, and a protein aggregation level of <5%. These clones are also available in our cost effective InVivoMAb™ format. These alternatives are: RMP1-14 (BE0146), 29F.1A12 (BE0273), and J43 (BE0033-2). A detailed explanation of the differences between our InVivoPlus™ and InVivoMAb™ formats can be viewed at the link below.
Bio X Cell also offers two anti-human PD-1 antibodies: Clone J116 (BE0188) is well documented for in vitro PD-1 neutralization and in vivo PD-1 blockade in humanized mice, and Clone J110 (BE0193) is well reported for use in flow cytometry.
The RMP1-14 clone is also available as a chimeric antibody with a mouse IgG2a Fc fragment (instead of the wild-type rat IgG2a Fc fragment) and a D265A Fc silencing mutation.