ReadyTag anti-c-Myc (Clone: 9E10)
Ghorashian, S., et al. (2015). "CD8 T cell tolerance to a tumor-associated self-antigen is reversed by CD4 T cells engineered to express the same T cell receptor." J Immunol 194(3): 1080-1089. PubMed
Ag receptors used for cancer immunotherapy are often directed against tumor-associated Ags also expressed in normal tissues. Targeting of such Ags can result in unwanted autoimmune attack of normal tissues or induction of tolerance in therapeutic T cells. We used a murine model to study the phenotype and function of T cells redirected against the murine double minute protein 2 (MDM2), a tumor-associated Ag that shows low expression in many normal tissues. Transfer of MDM2-TCR-engineered T cells into bone marrow chimeric mice revealed that Ag recognition in hematopoietic tissues maintained T cell function, whereas presentation of MDM2 in nonhematopoietic tissues caused reduced effector function. TCR-engineered CD8(+) T cells underwent rapid turnover, downmodulated CD8 expression, and lost cytotoxic function. We found that MDM2-TCR-engineered CD4(+) T cells provided help and restored cytotoxic function of CD8(+) T cells bearing the same TCR. Although the introduction of the CD8 coreceptor enhanced the ability of CD4(+) T cells to recognize MDM2 in vitro, the improved self-antigen recognition abolished their ability to provide helper function in vivo. The data indicate that the same class I-restricted TCR responsible for Ag recognition and tolerance induction in CD8(+) T cells can, in the absence of the CD8 coreceptor, elicit CD4 T cell help and partially reverse tolerance. Thus MHC class I-restricted CD4(+) T cells may enhance the efficacy of therapeutic TCR-engineered CD8(+) T cells and can be readily generated with the same TCR.
Gu, A. D., et al. (2015). "A critical role for transcription factor Smad4 in T cell function that is independent of transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling." Immunity 42(1): 68-79. PubMed
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) suppresses T cell function to maintain self-tolerance and to promote tumor immune evasion. Yet how Smad4, a transcription factor component of TGF-beta signaling, regulates T cell function remains unclear. Here we have demonstrated an essential role for Smad4 in promoting T cell function during autoimmunity and anti-tumor immunity. Smad4 deletion rescued the lethal autoimmunity resulting from transforming growth factor-beta receptor (TGF-betaR) deletion and compromised T-cell-mediated tumor rejection. Although Smad4 was dispensable for T cell generation, homeostasis, and effector function, it was essential for T cell proliferation after activation in vitro and in vivo. The transcription factor Myc was identified to mediate Smad4-controlled T cell proliferation. This study thus reveals a requirement of Smad4 for T-cell-mediated autoimmunity and tumor rejection, which is beyond the current paradigm. It highlights a TGF-betaR-independent role for Smad4 in promoting T cell function, autoimmunity, and anti-tumor immunity.
Ogami, K., et al. (2014). "Antiproliferative protein Tob directly regulates c-myc proto-oncogene expression through cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding protein CPEB." Oncogene 33(1): 55-64. PubMed
The regulation of mRNA deadenylation constitutes a pivotal mechanism of the post-transcriptional control of gene expression. Here we show that the antiproliferative protein Tob, a component of the Caf1-Ccr4 deadenylase complex, is involved in regulating the expression of the proto-oncogene c-myc. The c-myc mRNA contains cis elements (CPEs) in its 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR), which are recognized by the cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding protein (CPEB). CPEB recruits Caf1 deadenylase through interaction with Tob to form a ternary complex, CPEB-Tob-Caf1, and negatively regulates the expression of c-myc by accelerating the deadenylation and decay of its mRNA. In quiescent cells, c-myc mRNA is destabilized by the trans-acting complex (CPEB-Tob-Caf1), while in cells stimulated by the serum, both Tob and Caf1 are released from CPEB, and c-Myc expression is induced early after stimulation by the stabilization of its mRNA as an 'immediate-early gene'. Collectively, these results indicate that Tob is a key factor in the regulation of c-myc gene expression, which is essential for cell growth. Thus, Tob appears to function in the control of cell growth at least, in part, by regulating the expression of c-myc.
Patel, P., et al. (2014). "Adeno-associated virus-mediated delivery of a recombinant single-chain antibody against misfolded superoxide dismutase for treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis." Mol Ther 22(3): 498-510. PubMed
There is emerging evidence that the misfolding of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) may represent a common pathogenic event in both familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To reduce the burden of misfolded SOD1 species in the nervous system, we have tested a novel therapeutic approach based on adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated tonic expression of a DNA construct encoding a secretable single-chain fragment variable (scFv) antibody composed of the variable heavy and light chain regions of a monoclonal antibody (D3H5) binding specifically to misfolded SOD1. A single intrathecal injection of the AAV encoding the single-chain antibody in SOD1(G93A) mice at 45 days of age resulted in sustained expression of single-chain antibodies in the spinal cord, and it delayed disease onset and extension of life span by up to 28%, in direct correlation with scFv titers in the spinal cord. The treatment caused attenuation of neuronal stress signals and reduction in levels of misfolded SOD1 in the spinal cord of SOD1(G93A) mice. From these results, we propose that an immunotherapy based on intrathecal inoculation of AAV encoding a secretable scFv against misfolded SOD1 should be considered as potential treatment for ALS, especially for individuals carrying SOD1 mutations.
Chen, D., et al. (2013). "Differential effects on ARF stability by normal versus oncogenic levels of c-Myc expression." Mol Cell 51(1): 46-56. PubMed
ARF suppresses aberrant cell growth upon c-Myc overexpression by activating p53 responses. Nevertheless, the precise mechanism by which ARF specifically restrains the oncogenic potential of c-Myc without affecting its normal physiological function is not well understood. Here, we show that low levels of c-Myc expression stimulate cell proliferation, whereas high levels inhibit by activating the ARF/p53 response. Although the mRNA levels of ARF are induced in both scenarios, the accumulation of ARF protein occurs only when ULF-mediated degradation of ARF is inhibited by c-Myc overexpression. Moreover, the levels of ARF are reduced through ULF-mediated ubiquitination upon DNA damage. Blocking ARF degradation by c-Myc overexpression dramatically stimulates the apoptotic responses. Our study reveals that ARF stability control is crucial for differentiating normal (low) versus oncogenic (high) levels of c-Myc expression and suggests that differential effects on ULF- mediated ARF ubiquitination by c-Myc levels act as a barrier in oncogene-induced stress responses.
Wu, M., et al. (2013). "The ciliary protein cystin forms a regulatory complex with necdin to modulate Myc expression." PLoS One 8(12): e83062. PubMed
Cystin is a novel cilia-associated protein that is disrupted in the cpk mouse, a well-characterized mouse model of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD). Interestingly, overexpression of the Myc gene is evident in animal models of ARPKD and is thought to contribute to the renal cystic phenotype. Using a yeast two-hybrid approach, the growth suppressor protein necdin, known to modulate Myc expression, was found as an interacting partner of cystin. Deletion mapping demonstrated that the C-terminus of cystin and both termini of necdin are required for their mutual interaction. Speculating that these two proteins may function to regulate gene expression, we developed a luciferase reporter assay and observed that necdin strongly activated the Myc P1 promoter, and cystin did so more modestly. Interestingly, the necdin effect was significantly abrogated when cystin was co-transfected. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed a physical interaction with both necdin and cystin and the Myc P1 promoter, as well as between these proteins. The data suggest that these proteins likely function in a regulatory complex. Thus, we speculate that Myc overexpression in the cpk kidney results from the dysregulation of the cystin-necdin regulatory complex and c-Myc, in turn, contributes to cystogenesis in the cpk mouse.
Zhao, Y., et al. (2013). "RNAi silencing of c-Myc inhibits cell migration, invasion, and proliferation in HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line: c-Myc silencing in hepatocellular carcinoma cell." Cancer Cell Int 13(1): 23. PubMed
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer. Although much is known about both the cellular changes that lead to HCC and the etiological agents responsible for the majority of HCC cases, the molecule pathogenesis of HCC is still not well understood. We aimed to determine the effect of c-Myc gene expression on the proliferative, invasive, and migrative capabilities of hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. METHODS: A plasmid- based polymerase III promoter system was used to deliver and express short interfering RNA targeting c-Myc to reduce its expression in HepG2 cells. Western blot analysis was used to measure the protein level of c-Myc in HepG2 cells. The effects of c-Myc silencing on the invasion, motility, and proliferation of HepG2 cells were assessed using a Transwell chamber cell migration assay system and a growth curve assay, respectively. RESULTS: The data showed that plasmids expressing siRNA against c-Myc significantly decreased its expression in HepG2 cells by up to 85%. Importantly, pSilencer-c-Myc transfected cells showed a significantly reduced potential in migration, invasion, and proliferation. CONCLUSION: C-Myc plays an important role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The data show that down-regulating the c-Myc protein level in HepG2 cells by RNAi could significantly inhibit migration, invasion and proliferation of HepG2 cells. Thus, c-Myc might be a potential therapeutic target for hepatocellular carcinoma.
Hillman, M. C., et al. (2001). "A comprehensive system for protein purification and biochemical analysis based on antibodies to c-myc peptide." Protein Expr Purif 23(2): 359-368. PubMed
The genomics revolution has created a need for increased speed and generality for recombinant protein production systems as well as general methods for conducting biochemical assays with the purified protein products. 9E10 is a well-known high-affinity antibody that has found use in a wide variety of biochemical assays. Here we present a standardized system for purifying proteins with a simple epitope tag based on c-myc peptide using an antibody affinity column. Antibodies with binding parameters suitable for protein purification have been generated and characterized. To purify these antibodies from serum-containing medium without carrying through contaminating immunoglobulin G, a peptide-based purification process was developed. A fluorescence polarization binding assay was developed to characterize the antigen-antibody interaction. Protein purification protocols were optimized using a fluorescein-labeled peptide as a surrogate "protein." Binding and elution parameters were evaluated and optimized and basic operating conditions were defined. Several examples using this procedure for the purification of recombinant proteins are presented demonstrating the generality of the system. In all cases tested, highly pure final products are obtained in good yields. The combination of the antibodies described here and 9E10 allow for almost any biochemical application to be utilized with a single simple peptide tag.
Schiweck, W., et al. (1997). "Sequence analysis and bacterial production of the anti-c-myc antibody 9E10: the V(H) domain has an extended CDR-H3 and exhibits unusual solubility." FEBS Lett 414(1): 33-38. PubMed
The cDNAs for the two variable domains of the antibody 9E10 were cloned from the hybridoma cell line. A chimeric 9E10 Fab fragment was produced in E. coli under control of the tightly controlled tetracycline promoter. The functional Fab fragment was isolated in a single step via a His6-tag, which also served for its recognition by a nickel chelate-alkaline phosphatase conjugate. Thus, the recombinant Fab fragment permitted the immunochemical detection of the myc tag in a sandwich ELISA. The dissociation constant for the interaction with the myc tag peptide was determined as 80 +/- 5 nM by fluorescence titration. In an attempt to produce the smaller 9E10 Fv fragment it was found that its V(H) domain alone can be readily isolated from E. coli as a soluble protein. This unusual behaviour may be explained by the 18 amino acid-long CDR-H3 and could be of value in the design of 'single domain' antibodies.