InVivoMAb anti-mouse NK1.1 (Clone: PK136)
Burrack, K. S., et al. (2018). "Interleukin-15 Complex Treatment Protects Mice from Cerebral Malaria by Inducing Interleukin-10-Producing Natural Killer Cells." Immunity 48(4): 760-772 e764. PubMed
Cerebral malaria is a deadly complication of Plasmodium infection and involves blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption following infiltration of white blood cells. During experimental cerebral malaria (ECM), mice inoculated with Plasmodium berghei ANKA-infected red blood cells develop a fatal CM-like disease caused by CD8(+) T cell-mediated pathology. We found that treatment with interleukin-15 complex (IL-15C) prevented ECM, whereas IL-2C treatment had no effect. IL-15C-expanded natural killer (NK) cells were necessary and sufficient for protection against ECM. IL-15C treatment also decreased CD8(+) T cell activation in the brain and prevented BBB breakdown without influencing parasite load. IL-15C induced NK cells to express IL-10, which was required for IL-15C-mediated protection against ECM. Finally, we show that ALT-803, a modified human IL-15C, mediates similar induction of IL-10 in NK cells and protection against ECM. These data identify a regulatory role for cytokine-stimulated NK cells in the prevention of a pathogenic immune response.
Glasner, A., et al. (2018). "NKp46 Receptor-Mediated Interferon-gamma Production by Natural Killer Cells Increases Fibronectin 1 to Alter Tumor Architecture and Control Metastasis." Immunity 48(1): 107-119 e104. PubMed
Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphoid cells, and their presence within human tumors correlates with better prognosis. However, the mechanisms by which NK cells control tumors in vivo are unclear. Here, we used reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) imaging in humans and in mice to visualize tumor architecture in vivo. We demonstrated that signaling via the NK cell receptor NKp46 (human) and Ncr1 (mouse) induced interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) secretion from intratumoral NK cells. NKp46- and Ncr1-mediated IFN-gamma production led to the increased expression of the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin 1 (FN1) in the tumors, which altered primary tumor architecture and resulted in decreased metastases formation. Injection of IFN-gamma into tumor-bearing mice or transgenic overexpression of Ncr1 in NK cells in mice resulted in decreased metastasis formation. Thus, we have defined a mechanism of NK cell-mediated control of metastases in vivo that may help develop NK cell-dependent cancer therapies.
Ghasemi, R., et al. (2016). "Selective targeting of IL-2 to NKG2D bearing cells for improved immunotherapy." Nat Commun 7: 12878. PubMed
Despite over 20 years of clinical use, IL-2 has not fulfilled expectations as a safe and effective form of tumour immunotherapy. Expression of the high affinity IL-2Ralpha chain on regulatory T cells mitigates the anti-tumour immune response and its expression on vascular endothelium is responsible for life threatening complications such as diffuse capillary leak and pulmonary oedema. Here we describe the development of a recombinant fusion protein comprised of a cowpox virus encoded NKG2D binding protein (OMCP) and a mutated form of IL-2 with poor affinity for IL-2Ralpha. This fusion protein (OMCP-mutIL-2) potently and selectively activates IL-2 signalling only on NKG2D-bearing cells, such as natural killer (NK) cells, without broadly activating IL-2Ralpha-bearing cells. OMCP-mutIL-2 provides superior tumour control in several mouse models of malignancy and is not limited by mouse strain-specific variability of NK function. In addition, OMCP-mutIL-2 lacks the toxicity and vascular complications associated with parental wild-type IL-2.
Ludigs, K., et al. (2016). "NLRC5 shields T lymphocytes from NK-cell-mediated elimination under inflammatory conditions." Nat Commun 7: 10554. PubMed
NLRC5 is a transcriptional regulator of MHC class I (MHCI), which maintains high MHCI expression particularly in T cells. Recent evidence highlights an important NK-T-cell crosstalk, raising the question on whether NLRC5 specifically modulates this interaction. Here we show that NK cells from Nlrc5-deficient mice exhibit moderate alterations in inhibitory receptor expression and responsiveness. Interestingly, NLRC5 expression in T cells is required to protect them from NK-cell-mediated elimination upon inflammation. Using T-cell-specific Nlrc5-deficient mice, we show that NK cells surprisingly break tolerance even towards 'self' Nlrc5-deficient T cells under inflammatory conditions. Furthermore, during chronic LCMV infection, the total CD8(+) T-cell population is severely decreased in these mice, a phenotype reverted by NK-cell depletion. These findings strongly suggest that endogenous T cells with low MHCI expression become NK-cell targets, having thus important implications for T-cell responses in naturally or therapeutically induced inflammatory conditions.
Moynihan, K. D., et al. (2016). "Eradication of large established tumors in mice by combination immunotherapy that engages innate and adaptive immune responses." Nat Med. doi: 10.1038/nm.4200. PubMed
Checkpoint blockade with antibodies specific for cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein (CTLA)-4 or programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1; also known as PD-1) elicits durable tumor regression in metastatic cancer, but these dramatic responses are confined to a minority of patients. This suboptimal outcome is probably due in part to the complex network of immunosuppressive pathways present in advanced tumors, which are unlikely to be overcome by intervention at a single signaling checkpoint. Here we describe a combination immunotherapy that recruits a variety of innate and adaptive immune cells to eliminate large tumor burdens in syngeneic tumor models and a genetically engineered mouse model of melanoma; to our knowledge tumors of this size have not previously been curable by treatments relying on endogenous immunity. Maximal antitumor efficacy required four components: a tumor-antigen-targeting antibody, a recombinant interleukin-2 with an extended half-life, anti-PD-1 and a powerful T cell vaccine. Depletion experiments revealed that CD8+ T cells, cross-presenting dendritic cells and several other innate immune cell subsets were required for tumor regression. Effective treatment induced infiltration of immune cells and production of inflammatory cytokines in the tumor, enhanced antibody-mediated tumor antigen uptake and promoted antigen spreading. These results demonstrate the capacity of an elicited endogenous immune response to destroy large, established tumors and elucidate essential characteristics of combination immunotherapies that are capable of curing a majority of tumors in experimental settings typically viewed as intractable.
Maltez, V. I., et al. (2015). "Inflammasomes Coordinate Pyroptosis and Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxicity to Clear Infection by a Ubiquitous Environmental Bacterium." Immunity 43(5): 987-997. PubMed
Defective neutrophils in patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) cause susceptibility to extracellular and intracellular infections. Microbes must first be ejected from intracellular niches to expose them to neutrophil attack, so we hypothesized that inflammasomes detect certain CGD pathogens upstream of neutrophil killing. Here, we identified one such ubiquitous environmental bacterium, Chromobacterium violaceum, whose extreme virulence was fully counteracted by the NLRC4 inflammasome. Caspase-1 protected via two parallel pathways that eliminated intracellular replication niches. Pyroptosis was the primary bacterial clearance mechanism in the spleen, but both pyroptosis and interleukin-18 (IL-18)-driven natural killer (NK) cell responses were required for liver defense. NK cells cleared hepatocyte replication niches via perforin-dependent cytotoxicity, whereas interferon-gamma was not required. These insights suggested a therapeutic approach: exogenous IL-18 restored perforin-dependent cytotoxicity during infection by the inflammasome-evasive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. Therefore, inflammasomes can trigger complementary programmed cell death mechanisms, directing sterilizing immunity against intracellular bacterial pathogens.
Mitchell, D. A., et al. (2015). "Tetanus toxoid and CCL3 improve dendritic cell vaccines in mice and glioblastoma patients." Nature 519(7543): 366-369. PubMed
After stimulation, dendritic cells (DCs) mature and migrate to draining lymph nodes to induce immune responses. As such, autologous DCs generated ex vivo have been pulsed with tumour antigens and injected back into patients as immunotherapy. While DC vaccines have shown limited promise in the treatment of patients with advanced cancers including glioblastoma, the factors dictating DC vaccine efficacy remain poorly understood. Here we show that pre-conditioning the vaccine site with a potent recall antigen such as tetanus/diphtheria (Td) toxoid can significantly improve the lymph node homing and efficacy of tumour-antigen-specific DCs. To assess the effect of vaccine site pre-conditioning in humans, we randomized patients with glioblastoma to pre-conditioning with either mature DCs or Td unilaterally before bilateral vaccination with DCs pulsed with Cytomegalovirus phosphoprotein 65 (pp65) RNA. We and other laboratories have shown that pp65 is expressed in more than 90% of glioblastoma specimens but not in surrounding normal brain, providing an unparalleled opportunity to subvert this viral protein as a tumour-specific target. Patients given Td had enhanced DC migration bilaterally and significantly improved survival. In mice, Td pre-conditioning also enhanced bilateral DC migration and suppressed tumour growth in a manner dependent on the chemokine CCL3. Our clinical studies and corroborating investigations in mice suggest that pre-conditioning with a potent recall antigen may represent a viable strategy to improve anti-tumour immunotherapy.
Wensveen, F. M., et al. (2015). "NK cells link obesity-induced adipose stress to inflammation and insulin resistance." Nat Immunol 16(4): 376-385. PubMed
An important cause of obesity-induced insulin resistance is chronic systemic inflammation originating in visceral adipose tissue (VAT). VAT inflammation is associated with the accumulation of proinflammatory macrophages in adipose tissue, but the immunological signals that trigger their accumulation remain unknown. We found that a phenotypically distinct population of tissue-resident natural killer (NK) cells represented a crucial link between obesity-induced adipose stress and VAT inflammation. Obesity drove the upregulation of ligands of the NK cell-activating receptor NCR1 on adipocytes; this stimulated NK cell proliferation and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production, which in turn triggered the differentiation of proinflammatory macrophages and promoted insulin resistance. Deficiency of NK cells, NCR1 or IFN-gamma prevented the accumulation of proinflammatory macrophages in VAT and greatly ameliorated insulin sensitivity. Thus NK cells are key regulators of macrophage polarization and insulin resistance in response to obesity-induced adipocyte stress.
Yamada, D. H., et al. (2015). "Suppression of Fcgamma-receptor-mediated antibody effector function during persistent viral infection." Immunity 42(2): 379-390. PubMed
Understanding how viruses subvert host immunity and persist is essential for developing strategies to eliminate infection. T cell exhaustion during chronic viral infection is well described, but effects on antibody-mediated effector activity are unclear. Herein, we show that increased amounts of immune complexes generated in mice persistently infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) suppressed multiple Fcgamma-receptor (FcgammaR) functions. The high amounts of immune complexes suppressed antibody-mediated cell depletion, therapeutic antibody-killing of LCMV infected cells and human CD20-expressing tumors, as well as reduced immune complex-mediated cross-presentation to T cells. Suppression of FcgammaR activity was not due to inhibitory FcgammaRs or high concentrations of free antibody, and proper FcgammaR functions were restored when persistently infected mice specifically lacked immune complexes. Thus, we identify a mechanism of immunosuppression during viral persistence with implications for understanding effective antibody activity aimed at pathogen control.
Guo, Z., et al. (2014). "PD-1 blockade and OX40 triggering synergistically protects against tumor growth in a murine model of ovarian cancer." PLoS One 9(2): e89350. PubMed
The co-inhibitory receptor Programmed Death-1 (PD-1) curtails immune responses and prevent autoimmunity, however, tumors exploit this pathway to escape from immune destruction. The co-stimulatory receptor OX40 is upregulated on T cells following activation and increases their clonal expansion, survival and cytokine production when engaged. Although antagonistic anti-PD-1 or agonistic anti-OX40 antibodies can promote the rejection of several murine tumors, some poorly immunogenic tumors were refractory to this treatment. In the present study, we evaluated the antitumor effects and mechanisms of combinatorial PD-1 blockade and OX40 triggering in a murine ID8 ovarian cancer model. Although individual anti-PD-1 or OX40 mAb treatment was ineffective in tumor protection against 10-day established ID8 tumor, combined anti-PD-1/OX40 mAb treatment markedly inhibited tumor outgrowth with 60% of mice tumor free 90 days after tumor inoculation. Tumor protection was associated with a systemic immune response with memory and antigen specificity and required CD4(+) cells and CD8(+) T cells. The anti-PD-1/OX40 mAb treatment increased CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells and decreased immunosuppressive CD4(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells and CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) myeloid suppressor cells (MDSC), giving rise to significantly higher ratios of both effector CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells to Treg and MDSC in peritoneal cavity; Quantitative RT-PCR data further demonstrated the induction of a local immunostimulatory milieu by anti-PD-1/OX40 mAb treatment. The splenic CD8(+) T cells from combined mAb treated mice produced high levels of IFN-gamma upon tumor antigen stimulation and exhibited antigen-specific cytolytic activity. To our knowledge, this is the first study testing the antitumor effects of combined anti-PD-1/OX40 mAb in a murine ovarian cancer model, and our results provide a rationale for clinical trials evaluating ovarian cancer immunotherapy using this combination of mAb.
Uddin, M. N., et al. (2014). "TNF-alpha-dependent hematopoiesis following Bcl11b deletion in T cells restricts metastatic melanoma." J Immunol 192(4): 1946-1953. PubMed
Using several tumor models, we demonstrate that mice deficient in Bcl11b in T cells, although having reduced numbers of T cells in the peripheral lymphoid organs, developed significantly less tumors compared with wild-type mice. Bcl11b(-/-) CD4(+) T cells, with elevated TNF-alpha levels, but not the Bcl11b(-/-) CD8(+) T cells, were required for the reduced tumor burden, as were NK1.1(+) cells, found in increased numbers in Bcl11b(F/F)/CD4-Cre mice. Among NK1.1(+) cells, the NK cell population was predominant in number and was the only population displaying elevated granzyme B levels and increased degranulation, although not increased proliferation. Although the number of myeloid-derived suppressor cells was increased in the lungs with metastatic tumors of Bcl11b(F/F)/CD4-Cre mice, their arginase-1 levels were severely reduced. The increase in NK cell and myeloid-derived suppressor cell numbers was associated with increased bone marrow and splenic hematopoiesis. Finally, the reduced tumor burden, increased numbers of NK cells in the lung, and increased hematopoiesis in Bcl11b(F/F)/CD4-Cre mice were all dependent on TNF-alpha. Moreover, TNF-alpha treatment of wild-type mice also reduced the tumor burden and increased hematopoiesis and the numbers and activity of NK cells in the lung. In vitro treatment with TNF-alpha of lineage-negative hematopoietic progenitors increased NK and myeloid differentiation, further supporting a role of TNF-alpha in promoting hematopoiesis. These studies reveal a novel role for TNF-alpha in the antitumor immune response, specifically in stimulating hematopoiesis and increasing the numbers and activity of NK cells.
Walsh, K. B., et al. (2014). "Animal model of respiratory syncytial virus: CD8+ T cells cause a cytokine storm that is chemically tractable by sphingosine-1-phosphate 1 receptor agonist therapy." J Virol 88(11): 6281-6293. PubMed
The cytokine storm is an intensified, dysregulated, tissue-injurious inflammatory response driven by cytokine and immune cell components. The cytokine storm during influenza virus infection, whereby the amplified innate immune response is primarily responsible for pulmonary damage, has been well characterized. Now we describe a novel event where virus-specific T cells induce a cytokine storm. The paramyxovirus pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) is a model of human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV). Unexpectedly, when C57BL/6 mice were infected with PVM, the innate inflammatory response was undetectable until day 5 postinfection, at which time CD8(+) T cells infiltrated into the lung, initiating a cytokine storm by their production of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). Administration of an immunomodulatory sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor 1 (S1P1R) agonist significantly inhibited PVM-elicited cytokine storm by blunting the PVM-specific CD8(+) T cell response, resulting in diminished pulmonary disease and enhanced survival. IMPORTANCE: A dysregulated overly exuberant immune response, termed a "cytokine storm," accompanies virus-induced acute respiratory diseases (VARV), is primarily responsible for the accompanying high morbidity and mortality, and can be controlled therapeutically in influenza virus infection of mice and ferrets by administration of sphingosine-1-phosphate 1 receptor (S1P1R) agonists. Here, two novel findings are recorded. First, in contrast to influenza infection, where the cytokine storm is initiated early by the innate immune system, for pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), a model of RSV, the cytokine storm is initiated late in infection by the adaptive immune response: specifically, by virus-specific CD8 T cells via their release of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. Blockading these cytokines with neutralizing antibodies blunts the cytokine storm and protects the host. Second, PVM infection is controlled by administration of an S1P1R agonist.
Dai, M., et al. (2013). "Long-lasting complete regression of established mouse tumors by counteracting Th2 inflammation." J Immunother 36(4): 248-257. PubMed
Mice with intraperitoneal ID8 ovarian carcinoma or subcutaneous SW1 melanoma were injected with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to CD137PD-1CTLA4 7-15 days after tumor initiation. Survival of mice with ID8 tumors tripled and >40% of mice with SW1 tumors remained healthy >150 days after last treatment and are probably cured. Therapeutic efficacy was associated with a systemic immune response with memory and antigen specificity, required CD4 cells and involved CD8 cells and NK cells to a less extent. The 3 mAb combination significantly decreased CD19 cells at tumor sites, increased IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha producing CD4 and CD8 T cells and mature CD86 dendritic cells (DC), and it increased the ratios of effector CD4 and CD8 T cells to CD4Foxp3 regulatory T (Treg) cells and to CD11bGr-1 myeloid suppressor cells (MDSC). This is consistent with shifting the tumor microenvironment from an immunosuppressive Th2 to an immunostimulatory Th1 type and is further supported by PCR data. Adding an anti-CD19 mAb to the 3 mAb combination in the SW1 model further increased therapeutic efficacy. Data from ongoing experiments show that intratumoral injection of a combination of mAbs to CD137PD-1CTLA4CD19 can induce complete regression and dramatically prolong survival also in the TC1 carcinoma and B16 melanoma models, suggesting that the approach has general validity.
Ellermeier, J., et al. (2013). "Therapeutic efficacy of bifunctional siRNA combining TGF-beta1 silencing with RIG-I activation in pancreatic cancer." Cancer Res 73(6): 1709-1720. PubMed
Deregulated TGF-beta signaling in pancreatic cancer promotes tumor growth, invasion, metastasis, and a potent immunosuppressive network. A strategy for disrupting this tumor-promoting pathway is silencing TGF-beta by siRNA. By introducing a triphosphate group at the 5' end of siRNA (ppp-siRNA), gene silencing can be combined with immune activation via the cytosolic helicase retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I), a ubiquitously expressed receptor recognizing viral RNA. We validated RIG-I as a therapeutic target by showing that activation of RIG-I in pancreatic carcinoma cells induced IRF-3 phosphorylation, production of type I IFN, the chemokine CXCL10, as well as caspase-9-mediated tumor cell apoptosis. Next, we generated a bifunctional ppp-siRNA that combines RIG-I activation with gene silencing of TGF-beta1 (ppp-TGF-beta) and studied its therapeutic efficacy in the orthotopic Panc02 mouse model of pancreatic cancer. Intravenous injection of ppp-TGF-beta reduced systemic and tumor-associated TGF-beta levels. In addition, it induced high levels of type I IFN and CXCL10 in serum and tumor tissue, systemic immune cell activation, and profound tumor cell apoptosis in vivo. Treatment of mice with established tumors with ppp-TGF-beta significantly prolonged survival as compared with ppp-RNA or TGF-beta siRNA alone. Furthermore, we observed the recruitment of activated CD8(+) T cells to the tumor and a reduced frequency of CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) myeloid cells. Therapeutic efficacy was dependent on CD8(+) T cells, whereas natural killer cells were dispensable. In conclusion, combing TGF-beta gene silencing with RIG-I signaling confers potent antitumor efficacy against pancreatic cancer by breaking tumor-induced CD8(+) T cell suppression.
Hervieu, A., et al. (2013). "Dacarbazine-mediated upregulation of NKG2D ligands on tumor cells activates NK and CD8 T cells and restrains melanoma growth." J Invest Dermatol 133(2): 499-508. PubMed
Dacarbazine (DTIC) is a cytotoxic drug widely used for melanoma treatment. However, the putative contribution of anticancer immune responses in the efficacy of DTIC has not been evaluated. By testing how DTIC affects host immune responses to cancer in a mouse model of melanoma, we unexpectedly found that both natural killer (NK) and CD8(+) T cells were indispensable for DTIC therapeutic effect. Although DTIC did not directly affect immune cells, it triggered the upregulation of NKG2D ligands on tumor cells, leading to NK cell activation and IFNgamma secretion in mice and humans. NK cell-derived IFNgamma subsequently favored upregulation of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules on tumor cells, rendering them sensitive to cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells. Accordingly, DTIC markedly enhanced cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 inhibition efficacy in vivo in an NK-dependent manner. These results underscore the immunogenic properties of DTIC and provide a rationale to combine DTIC with immunotherapeutic agents that relieve immunosuppression in vivo.
Kearl, T. J., et al. (2013). "Programmed death receptor-1/programmed death receptor ligand-1 blockade after transient lymphodepletion to treat myeloma." J Immunol 190(11): 5620-5628. PubMed
Early phase clinical trials targeting the programmed death receptor-1/ligand-1 (PD-1/PD-L1) pathway to overcome tumor-mediated immunosuppression have reported promising results for a variety of cancers. This pathway appears to play an important role in the failure of immune reactivity to malignant plasma cells in multiple myeloma patients, as the tumor cells express relatively high levels of PD-L1, and T cells show increased PD-1 expression. In the current study, we demonstrate that PD-1/PD-L1 blockade with a PD-L1-specific Ab elicits rejection of a murine myeloma when combined with lymphodepleting irradiation. This particular combined approach by itself has not previously been shown to be efficacious in other tumor models. The antitumor effect of lymphodepletion/anti-PD-L1 therapy was most robust when tumor Ag-experienced T cells were present either through cell transfer or survival after nonmyeloablative irradiation. In vivo depletion of CD4 or CD8 T cells completely eliminated antitumor efficacy of the lymphodepletion/anti-PD-L1 therapy, indicating that both T cell subsets are necessary for tumor rejection. Elimination of myeloma by T cells occurs relatively quickly as tumor cells in the bone marrow were nearly nondetectable by 5 d after the first anti-PD-L1 treatment, suggesting that antimyeloma reactivity is primarily mediated by preactivated T cells, rather than newly generated myeloma-reactive T cells. Anti-PD-L1 plus lymphodepletion failed to improve survival in two solid tumor models, but demonstrated significant efficacy in two hematologic malignancy models. In summary, our results support the clinical testing of lymphodepletion and PD-1/PD-L1 blockade as a novel approach for improving the survival of patients with multiple myeloma.
Richter, K., et al. (2013). "Macrophage and T cell produced IL-10 promotes viral chronicity." PLoS Pathog 9(11): e1003735. PubMed
Chronic viral infections lead to CD8(+) T cell exhaustion, characterized by impaired cytokine secretion. Presence of the immune-regulatory cytokine IL-10 promotes chronicity of Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV) Clone 13 infection, while absence of IL-10/IL-10R signaling early during infection results in viral clearance and higher percentages and numbers of antiviral, cytokine producing T cells. IL-10 is produced by several cell types during LCMV infection but it is currently unclear which cellular sources are responsible for induction of viral chronicity. Here, we demonstrate that although dendritic cells produce IL-10 and overall IL-10 mRNA levels decrease significantly in absence of CD11c(+) cells, absence of IL-10 produced by CD11c(+) cells failed to improve the LCMV-specific T cell response and control of LCMV infection. Similarly, NK cell specific IL-10 deficiency had no positive impact on the LCMV-specific T cell response or viral control, even though high percentages of NK cells produced IL-10 at early time points after infection. Interestingly, we found markedly improved T cell responses and clearance of normally chronic LCMV Clone 13 infection when either myeloid cells or T cells lacked IL-10 production and mice depleted of monocytes/macrophages or CD4(+) T cells exhibited reduced overall levels of IL-10 mRNA. These data suggest that the decision whether LCMV infection becomes chronic or can be cleared critically depends on early CD4(+) T cell and monocyte/macrophage produced IL-10.
Monticelli, L. A., et al. (2011). "Innate lymphoid cells promote lung-tissue homeostasis after infection with influenza virus." Nat Immunol 12(11): 1045-1054. PubMed
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), a heterogeneous cell population, are critical in orchestrating immunity and inflammation in the intestine, but whether ILCs influence immune responses or tissue homeostasis at other mucosal sites remains poorly characterized. Here we identify a population of lung-resident ILCs in mice and humans that expressed the alloantigen Thy-1 (CD90), interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor a-chain (CD25), IL-7 receptor a-chain (CD127) and the IL-33 receptor subunit T1-ST2. Notably, mouse ILCs accumulated in the lung after infection with influenza virus, and depletion of ILCs resulted in loss of airway epithelial integrity, diminished lung function and impaired airway remodeling. These defects were restored by administration of the lung ILC product amphiregulin. Collectively, our results demonstrate a critical role for lung ILCs in restoring airway epithelial integrity and tissue homeostasis after infection with influenza virus.