About InVivoMAb anti-mouse TIM-4
The RMT4-53 monoclonal antibody reacts with mouse T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 4 (TIM-4), a phosphatidylserine-binding receptor and member of the Ig superfamily. TIM-4 is preferentially expressed on antigen-presenting cells. TIM-4 is thought to enhance the engulfment of apoptotic cells and play a role in regulating T cell proliferation. The RMT4-53 antibody has been shown to block TIM-4 in vitro and in vivo.
InVivoMAb anti-mouse TIM-4 Specifications
|Isotype||Rat IgG2b, κ|
|Recommended Isotype Control(s)|
|Recommended Dilution Buffer|
|Immunogen||Mouse TIM-4-Ig fusion protein|
|Sterility||0.2 μM filtered|
|Production||Purified from tissue culture supernatant in an animal free facility|
|Molecular Weight||150 kDa|
|Storage||The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.|
InVivoMAb anti-mouse TIM-4 (Clone: RMT4-53)
Ji, H., et al. (2014). “T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 4 (TIM-4) signaling in innate immune-mediated liver ischemia-reperfusion injury.” Hepatology 60(6): 2052-2064. PubMed
Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), an innate immunity-driven inflammation response, occurs in multiple clinical settings including liver resection, transplantation, trauma, and shock. T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin (TIM)-4, the only TIM protein not expressed on T cells, is found on macrophages and dendritic cells. The regulatory function of macrophage TIM-4 in the engulfment of apoptotic/necrotic bodies in innate immunity-mediated disease states remains unknown. This study focuses on the putative role of TIM-4 signaling in a model of liver warm ischemia (90 minutes) and reperfusion. The ischemia insult triggered TIM-4 expression by stressed hepatocellular phosphatidylserine (PS) presentation, peaking at 6 hours of reperfusion, and coinciding with the maximal hepatocellular damage. TIM-4-deficient or wild-type WT mice treated with antagonistic TIM-4 monoclonal antibody (mAb) were resistant against liver IRI, evidenced by diminished serum alanine aminotransferase (sALT) levels and well-preserved hepatic architecture. Liver hepatoprotection rendered by TIM-4 deficiency was accompanied by diminished macrophage infiltration/chemoattraction, phagocytosis, and activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR)2/4/9-dependent signaling. Correlating with in vivo kinetics, the peak of TIM-4 induction in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated bone marrow derived-macrophages (BMM) was detected in 6-hour cultures. To mimic liver IRI, we employed hydrogen peroxide-necrotic hepatocytes, which readily present PS. Indeed, necrotic hepatocytes were efficiently captured/engulfed by WT (TIM-4+) but not by TIM-4-deficient BMM. Finally, in a newly established model of liver IRI, adoptive transfer of WT but not TIM-4-deficient BMM readily recreated local inflammation response/hepatocellular damage in the CD11b-DTR mouse system. CONCLUSION: These findings document the importance of macrophage-specific TIM-4 activation in the mechanism of hepatic IRI. Macrophage TIM-4 may represent a therapeutic target to minimize innate inflammatory responses in IR-stressed organs.
Yeung, M. Y., et al. (2013). “Interruption of dendritic cell-mediated TIM-4 signaling induces regulatory T cells and promotes skin allograft survival.” J Immunol 191(8): 4447-4455. PubMed
Dendritic cells (DCs) are the central architects of the immune response, inducing inflammatory or tolerogenic immunity, dependent on their activation status. As such, DCs are highly attractive therapeutic targets and may hold the potential to control detrimental immune responses. TIM-4, expressed on APCs, has complex functions in vivo, acting both as a costimulatory molecule and a phosphatidylserine receptor. The effect of TIM-4 costimulation on T cell activation remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that Ab blockade of DC-expressed TIM-4 leads to increased induction of induced regulatory T cells (iTregs) from naive CD4(+) T cells, both in vitro and in vivo. iTreg induction occurs through suppression of IL-4/STAT6/Gata3-induced Th2 differentiation. In addition, blockade of TIM-4 on previously activated DCs still leads to increased iTreg induction. iTregs induced under TIM-4 blockade have equivalent potency to control and, upon adoptive transfer, significantly prolong skin allograft survival in vivo. In RAG(-/-) recipients of skin allografts adoptively transferred with CD4(+) T cells, we show that TIM-4 blockade in vivo is associated with a 3-fold prolongation in allograft survival. Furthermore, in this mouse model of skin transplantation, increased induction of allospecific iTregs and a reduction in T effector responses were observed, with decreased Th1 and Th2 responses. This enhanced allograft survival and protolerogenic skewing of the alloresponse is critically dependent on conversion of naive CD4(+) to Tregs in vivo. Collectively, these studies identify blockade of DC-expressed TIM-4 as a novel strategy that holds the capacity to induce regulatory immunity in vivo.
Zhang, Y., et al. (2013). “Targeting TIM-1 on CD4 T cells depresses macrophage activation and overcomes ischemia-reperfusion injury in mouse orthotopic liver transplantation.” Am J Transplant 13(1): 56-66. PubMed
Hepatic injury due to cold storage followed by reperfusion remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). CD4 T cell TIM-1 signaling costimulates a variety of immune responses in allograft recipients. This study analyzes mechanisms by which TIM-1 affects liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in a murine model of prolonged cold storage followed by OLT. Livers from C57BL/6 mice, preserved at 4 degrees C in the UW solution for 20 h, were transplanted to syngeneic recipients. There was an early (1 h) increased accumulation of TIM-1+ activated CD4 T cells in the ischemic OLTs. Disruption of TIM-1 signaling with a blocking mAb (RMT1-10) ameliorated liver damage, evidenced by reduced sALT levels and well-preserved architecture. Unlike in controls, TIM-1 blockade diminished OLT expression of Tbet/IFN-gamma, but amplified IL-4/IL-10/IL-22; abolished neutrophil and macrophage infiltration/activation and inhibited NF-kappaB while enhancing Bcl-2/Bcl-xl. Although adoptive transfer of CD4 T cells triggered liver damage in otherwise IR-resistant RAG(-/-) mice, adjunctive TIM-1 blockade reduced Tbet transcription and abolished macrophage activation, restoring homeostasis in IR-stressed livers. Further, transfer of TIM-1(Hi) CD4+, but not TIM-1(Lo) CD4+ T cells, recreated liver IRI in RAG(-/-) mice. Thus, TIM-1 expressing CD4 T cells are required in the mechanism of innate immune-mediated hepatic IRI in OLTs.