InVivoMAb anti-mouse 2C TCR (Clone: 1B2)
Dominguez, D., et al. (2016). "Exogenous IL-33 Restores Dendritic Cell Activation and Maturation in Established Cancer." J Immunol. 10.4049/jimmunol.1501399. PubMed
The role of IL-33, particularly in tumor growth and tumor immunity, remains ill-defined. We show that exogenous IL-33 can induce robust antitumor effect through a CD8+ T cell-dependent mechanism. Systemic administration of rIL-33 alone was sufficient to inhibit growth of established tumors in transplant and de novo melanoma tumorigenesis models. Notably, in addition to a direct action on CD8+ T cell expansion and IFN-gamma production, rIL-33 therapy activated myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) in tumor-bearing mice, restored antitumor T cell activity, and increased Ag cross-presentation within the tumor microenvironment. Furthermore, combination therapy consisting of rIL-33 and agonistic anti-CD40 Abs demonstrated synergistic antitumor activity. Specifically, MyD88, an essential component of the IL-33 signaling pathway, was required for the IL-33-mediated increase in mDC number and upregulation in expression of costimulatory molecules. Importantly, we identified that the IL-33 receptor ST2, MyD88, and STAT1 cooperate to induce costimulatory molecule expression on mDCs in response to rIL-33. Thus, our study revealed a novel IL-33-ST2-MyD88-STAT1 axis that restores mDC activation and maturation in established cancer and, thereby, the magnitude of antitumor immune responses, suggesting a potential use of rIL-33 as a new immunotherapy option to treat established cancer.
Li, Y., et al. (2015). "Persistent Antigen and Prolonged AKT-mTORC1 Activation Underlie Memory CD8 T Cell Impairment in the Absence of CD4 T Cells." J Immunol 195(4): 1591-1598. PubMed
Recall responses by memory CD8 T cells are impaired in the absence of CD4 T cells. Although several mechanisms have been proposed, the molecular basis is still largely unknown. Using a local influenza virus infection in the respiratory tract and the lung of CD4(-/-) mice, we show that memory CD8 T cell impairment is limited to the lungs and the lung-draining lymph nodes, where viral Ags are unusually persistent and abundant in these mice. Persistent Ag exposure results in prolonged activation of the AKT-mTORC1 pathway in Ag-specific CD8 T cells, favoring their development into effector memory T cells at the expense of central memory T cells, and inhibition of mTORC1 by rapamycin largely corrects the impairment by promoting central memory T cell development. The findings suggest that the prolonged AKT-mTORC1 activation driven by persistent Ag is a critical mechanism underlying the impaired memory CD8 T cell development and responses in the absence of CD4 T cells.
Woo, S. R., et al. (2014). "STING-dependent cytosolic DNA sensing mediates innate immune recognition of immunogenic tumors." Immunity 41(5): 830-842. PubMed
Spontaneous T cell responses against tumors occur frequently and have prognostic value in patients. The mechanism of innate immune sensing of immunogenic tumors leading to adaptive T cell responses remains undefined, although type I interferons (IFNs) are implicated in this process. We found that spontaneous CD8(+) T cell priming against tumors was defective in mice lacking stimulator of interferon genes complex (STING), but not other innate signaling pathways, suggesting involvement of a cytosolic DNA sensing pathway. In vitro, IFN-? production and dendritic cell activation were triggered by tumor-cell-derived DNA, via cyclic-GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), STING, and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). In the tumor microenvironment in vivo, tumor cell DNA was detected within host antigen-presenting cells, which correlated with STING pathway activation and IFN-? production. Our results demonstrate that a major mechanism for innate immune sensing of cancer occurs via the host STING pathway, with major implications for cancer immunotherapy.
Chervin, A. S., et al. (2013). "Design of T-cell receptor libraries with diverse binding properties to examine adoptive T-cell responses." Gene Ther 20(6): 634-644. PubMed
Adoptive T-cell therapies have shown significant promise in the treatment of cancer and viral diseases. One approach, which introduces antigen-specific T-cell receptors (TCRs) into ex vivo activated T cells, is designed to overcome central tolerance mechanisms that prevent responses by endogenous T-cell repertoires. Studies have suggested that use of higher-affinity TCRs against class I major histocompatibility complex antigens could drive the activity of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, but the rules that govern the TCR binding optimal for in vivo activity are unknown. Here, we describe a high-throughput platform of 'reverse biochemistry' whereby a library of TCRs with a wide range of binding properties to the same antigen is introduced into T cells and adoptively transferred into mice with antigen-positive tumors. Extraction of RNA from tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) or lymphoid organs allowed high-throughput sequencing to determine which TCRs were selected in vivo. The results showed that CD8(+) T cells expressing the highest-affinity TCR variants were deleted in both the TIL population and in peripheral lymphoid tissues. In contrast, these same high-affinity TCR variants were preferentially expressed within CD4(+) T cells in the tumor, suggesting they had a role in antigen-specific tumor control. The findings thus revealed that the affinity of the transduced TCRs controlled the survival and tumor infiltration of the transferred T cells. Accordingly, the TCR library strategy enables rapid assessment of TCR-binding properties that promote peripheral T-cell survival and tumor elimination.
Ophir, E., et al. (2013). "Murine anti-third-party central-memory CD8(+) T cells promote hematopoietic chimerism under mild conditioning: lymph-node sequestration and deletion of anti-donor T cells." Blood 121(7): 1220-1228. PubMed
Transplantation of T cell-depleted BM (TDBM) under mild conditioning, associated with minimal toxicity and reduced risk of GVHD, offers an attractive therapeutic option for patients with nonmalignant hematologic disorders and can mediate immune tolerance to subsequent organ transplantation. However, overcoming TDBM rejection after reduced conditioning remains a challenge. Here, we address this barrier using donorderived central memory CD8(+) T cells (Tcms), directed against third-party antigens. Our results show that fully allogeneic or (hostXdonor)F1-Tcm, support donor chimerism (> 6 months) in sublethally irradiated (5.5Gy) mice, without GVHD symptoms. Chimerism under yet lower irradiation (4.5Gy) was achieved by combining Tcm with short-term administration of low-dose Rapamycin. Importantly, this chimerism resulted in successful donor skin acceptance, whereas third-party skin was rejected. Tracking of host anti-donor T cells (HADTCs), that mediate TDBMT rejection, in a novel bioluminescence-imaging model revealed that Tcms both induce accumulation and eradicate HADTCs in the LNs,concomitant with their elimination from other organs, including the BM. Further analysis with 2-photon microcopy revealed that Tcms form conjugates with HADTCs, resulting in decelerated and confined movement of HADTCs within the LNs in an antigen-specific manner. Thus, anti-third-party Tcms support TDBMT engraftment under reduced-conditioning through lymph-node sequestration and deletion of HADTCs, offering a novel and potentially safe approach for attaining stable hematopoietic chimerism.