InVivoMAb anti-mouse NKG2D (Clone: HMG2D)
Crosby, E. J., et al. (2015). "Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Expands a Population of NKG2D+CD8+ T Cells That Exacerbates Disease in Mice Coinfected with Leishmania major." J Immunol 195(7): 3301-3310. PubMed
Leishmaniasis is a significant neglected tropical disease that is associated with a wide range of clinical presentations and a lifelong persistent infection. Because of the chronic nature of the disease, there is a high risk for coinfection occurring in patients, and how coinfections influence the outcome of leishmaniasis is poorly understood. To address this issue, we infected mice with Leishmania major and 2 wk later with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and then monitored the course of infection. Leishmania parasites are controlled by production of IFN-gamma, which leads to macrophage-mediated parasite killing. Thus, one might predict that coinfection with LCMV, which induces a strong systemic type 1 response, would accelerate disease resolution. However, we found that infection with LCMV led to significantly enhanced disease in L. major-infected animals. This increased disease correlated with an infiltration into the leishmanial lesions of NKG2D(+) CD8(+) T cells producing granzyme B, but surprisingly little IFN-gamma. We found that depletion of CD8 T cells after viral clearance, as well as blockade of NKG2D, reversed the increased pathology seen in coinfected mice. Thus, this work highlights the impact a secondary infection can have on leishmaniasis and demonstrates that even pathogens known to promote a type 1 response may exacerbate leishmanial infections.
Crosby, E. J., et al. (2014). "Engagement of NKG2D on bystander memory CD8 T cells promotes increased immunopathology following Leishmania major infection." PLoS Pathog 10(2): e1003970. PubMed
One of the hallmarks of adaptive immunity is the development of a long-term pathogen specific memory response. While persistent memory T cells certainly impact the immune response during a secondary challenge, their role in unrelated infections is less clear. To address this issue, we utilized lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and Listeria monocytogenes immune mice to investigate whether bystander memory T cells influence Leishmania major infection. Despite similar parasite burdens, LCMV and Listeria immune mice exhibited a significant increase in leishmanial lesion size compared to mice infected with L. major alone. This increased lesion size was due to a severe inflammatory response, consisting not only of monocytes and neutrophils, but also significantly more CD8 T cells. Many of the CD8 T cells were LCMV specific and expressed gzmB and NKG2D, but unexpectedly expressed very little IFN-gamma. Moreover, if CD8 T cells were depleted in LCMV immune mice prior to challenge with L. major, the increase in lesion size was lost. Strikingly, treating with NKG2D blocking antibodies abrogated the increased immunopathology observed in LCMV immune mice, showing that NKG2D engagement on LCMV specific memory CD8 T cells was required for the observed phenotype. These results indicate that bystander memory CD8 T cells can participate in an unrelated immune response and induce immunopathology through an NKG2D dependent mechanism without providing increased protection.
Chen, H., et al. (2013). "NKG2D blockade attenuated cardiac allograft vasculopathy in a mouse model of cardiac transplantation." Clin Exp Immunol 173(3): 544-552. PubMed
A previous paper has reported that blockade of NKG2D was effective in protecting allograft in murine models of cardiac transplantation, but the mechanism of NKG2D blockade on attenuated cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) was still unknown. In our current study, we found that wild-type recipients treated with anti-NKG2D monoclonal antibody (mAb) plus cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen (CTLA)-4-immunoglobulin (I)g showed prolonged allograft survivals (>90 days, P < 0.001) significantly and attenuated CAV. These in-vivo results correlated with reduced alloantibody production, low expression of interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-6, while infiltration of regulatory T cells increased. IL-6 administration induced shorter allograft survival and higher CAV grade in CTLA-4-Ig plus anti-NKG2D mAb-treated recipients, whereas IL-17 had no significant effect on allograft survival and CAV grade in CTLA-4-Ig plus anti-NKG2D mAb-treated recipients. Furthermore, the prolonged allograft survival induced by NKG2D blockade was abrogated partially with depletion of regulatory T cells. In conclusion, blockade of NKG2D combined with CTLA-4-Ig attenuated CAV and this effect was associated with lower alloantibody production, inhibited IL-6 expression and enhanced expansion of regulatory T cells.
Graubardt, N., et al. (2013). "Promotion of liver regeneration by natural killer cells in a murine model is dependent on extracellular adenosine triphosphate phosphohydrolysis." Hepatology 57(5): 1969-1979. PubMed
Nucleotides, such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), are released by cellular injury, bind to purinergic receptors expressed on hepatic parenchymal and nonparenchymal cells, and modulate cellular crosstalk. Liver resection and resulting cellular stress initiate such purinergic signaling responses between hepatocytes and innate immune cells, which regulate and ultimately drive liver regeneration. We studied a murine model of partial hepatectomy using immunodeficient mice to determine the effects of natural killer (NK) cell-mediated purinergic signaling on liver regeneration. We noted first that liver NK cells undergo phenotypic changes post-partial hepatectomy (PH) in vivo, including increased cytotoxicity and more immature phenotype manifested by alterations in the expression of CD107a, CD27, CD11b, and CD16. Hepatocellular proliferation is significantly decreased in Rag2/common gamma-null mice (lacking T, B, and NK cells) when compared to wildtype and Rag1-null mice (lacking T and B cells but retaining NK cells). Extracellular ATP levels are elevated post-PH and NK cell cytotoxicity is substantively increased in vivo in response to hydrolysis of extracellular ATP levels by apyrase (soluble NTPDase). Moreover, liver regeneration is significantly increased by the scavenging of extracellular ATP in wildtype mice and in Rag2/common gamma-null mice after adoptive transfer of NK cells. Blockade of NKG2D-dependent interactions significantly decreased hepatocellular proliferation. In vitro, NK cell cytotoxicity is inhibited by extracellular ATP in a manner dependent on P2Y1, P2Y2, and P2X3 receptor activation. CONCLUSION: We propose that hepatic NK cells are activated and cytotoxic post-PH and support hepatocellular proliferation. NK cell cytotoxicity is, however, attenuated by hepatic release of extracellular ATP by way of the activation of specific P2 receptors. Clearance of extracellular ATP elevates NK cell cytotoxicity and boosts liver regeneration.
Hervieu, A., et al. (2013). "Dacarbazine-mediated upregulation of NKG2D ligands on tumor cells activates NK and CD8 T cells and restrains melanoma growth." J Invest Dermatol 133(2): 499-508. PubMed
Dacarbazine (DTIC) is a cytotoxic drug widely used for melanoma treatment. However, the putative contribution of anticancer immune responses in the efficacy of DTIC has not been evaluated. By testing how DTIC affects host immune responses to cancer in a mouse model of melanoma, we unexpectedly found that both natural killer (NK) and CD8(+) T cells were indispensable for DTIC therapeutic effect. Although DTIC did not directly affect immune cells, it triggered the upregulation of NKG2D ligands on tumor cells, leading to NK cell activation and IFNgamma secretion in mice and humans. NK cell-derived IFNgamma subsequently favored upregulation of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules on tumor cells, rendering them sensitive to cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells. Accordingly, DTIC markedly enhanced cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 inhibition efficacy in vivo in an NK-dependent manner. These results underscore the immunogenic properties of DTIC and provide a rationale to combine DTIC with immunotherapeutic agents that relieve immunosuppression in vivo.
Mandaric, S., et al. (2012). "IL-10 suppression of NK/DC crosstalk leads to poor priming of MCMV-specific CD4 T cells and prolonged MCMV persistence." PLoS Pathog 8(8): e1002846. PubMed
IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine that regulates the extent of host immunity to infection by exerting suppressive effects on different cell types. Herpes viruses induce IL-10 to modulate the virus-host balance towards their own benefit, resulting in prolonged virus persistence. To define the cellular and molecular players involved in IL-10 modulation of herpes virus-specific immunity, we studied mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection. Here we demonstrate that IL-10 specifically curtails the MCMV-specific CD4 T cell response by suppressing the bidirectional crosstalk between NK cells and myeloid dendritic cells (DCs). In absence of IL-10, NK cells licensed DCs to effectively prime MCMV-specific CD4 T cells and we defined the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-12, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha as well as NK cell activating receptors NKG2D and NCR-1 to regulate this bidirectional NK/DC interplay. Consequently, markedly enhanced priming of MCMV-specific CD4 T cells in Il10(-/-) mice led to faster control of lytic viral replication, but this came at the expense of TNF-alpha mediated immunopathology. Taken together, our data show that early induction of IL-10 during MCMV infection critically regulates the strength of the innate-adaptive immune cell crosstalk, thereby impacting beneficially on the ensuing virus-host balance for both the virus and the host.
Zloza, A., et al. (2012). "NKG2D signaling on CD8(+) T cells represses T-bet and rescues CD4-unhelped CD8(+) T cell memory recall but not effector responses." Nat Med 18(3): 422-428. PubMed
CD4-unhelped CD8(+) T cells are functionally defective T cells primed in the absence of CD4(+) T cell help. Given the co-stimulatory role of natural-killer group 2, member D protein (NKG2D) on CD8(+) T cells, we investigated its ability to rescue these immunologically impotent cells. We demonstrate that augmented co-stimulation through NKG2D during priming paradoxically rescues memory, but not effector, CD8(+) T cell responses. NKG2D-mediated rescue is characterized by reversal of elevated transcription factor T-box expressed in T cells (T-bet) expression and recovery of interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma production and cytolytic responses. Rescue is abrogated in CD8(+) T cells lacking NKG2D. Augmented co-stimulation through NKG2D confers a high rate of survival to mice lacking CD4(+) T cells in a CD4-dependent influenza model and rescues HIV-specific CD8(+) T cell responses from CD4-deficient HIV-positive donors. These findings demonstrate that augmented co-stimulation through NKG2D is effective in rescuing CD4-unhelped CD8(+) T cells from their pathophysiological fate and may provide therapeutic benefits.
Ito, A., et al. (2008). "NK cells contribute to the skin graft rejection promoted by CD4+ T cells activated through the indirect allorecognition pathway." Int Immunol 20(10): 1343-1349. PubMed
Rejection of solid organ allografts is promoted by T cells. Recipient T cells can directly recognize intact allo-MHC molecules on donor cells and can also indirectly recognize processed donor-derived allo-peptides presented by recipient antigen-presenting cells in the context of self-MHC molecules. Although CD4(+) T cells primed through the indirect allorecognition pathway alone are sufficient to promote acute allograft rejection, it is unknown how they can mediate graft destruction without cognate recognition of donor cells. In this study, we analyzed the indirect effector mechanism of skin allograft rejection using a mouse model in which SCID recipients bearing MHC class II-deficient skin allografts were adoptively transferred with CD4(+) T cells. Histologically, entire graft necrosis was preceded by mononuclear cell infiltration in the graft epithelia with epithelial cell apoptosis, indicating cell-mediated cytotoxicity against donor cells as an effector mechanism. Beside CD4(+) T cells and macrophages, NK cells infiltrated in the rejecting grafts. Depletion of NK cells as well as blocking of the activating NK receptor NKG2D allowed prolonged survival of the grafts. Expression of NKG2D ligands was up-regulated in the rejecting grafts. These results suggest that NK cells activated through NKG2D contribute to the skin allograft rejection promoted by indirectly primed CD4(+) T cells.