About InVivoMAb anti-mouse IL-4
The BVD6-24G2 monoclonal antibody reacts with mouse IL-4 (interleukin-4) a multifunctional 14 kDa cytokine. IL-4 is expressed primarily by activated Th2 cells and NK cells, and at lower levels by mast cells, and basophils. IL-4 signals through the IL-4Rα. Upon receptor binding IL-4 stimulates activated B and T lymphocyte proliferation, and the differentiation of B cells into plasma cells. It also induces B cell class switching to IgE, and up-regulates MHC class II production while decreasing the production of Th1 cells, macrophages, IFNγ, and dendritic cell IL-12. Like other Th2 associated cytokines, IL-4 is involved in the airway inflammation observed in the lungs of patients with allergic asthma. The BVD6-24G2 antibody cannot neutralize the bioactivity of natural or recombinant IL-4.
InVivoMAb anti-mouse IL-4 Specifications
|Isotype||Rat IgG1, κ|
|Recommended Isotype Control(s)|
|Recommended Dilution Buffer|
|Immunogen||Recombinant mouse IL-4|
|Sterility||0.2 μM filtered|
|Production||Purified from tissue culture supernatant in an animal free facility|
|Molecular Weight||150 kDa|
|Storage||The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.|
InVivoMAb anti-mouse IL-4
Chennupati, V., et al. (2016). “Notch Signaling Regulates the Homeostasis of Tissue-Restricted Innate-like T Cells.” J Immunol 197(3): 771-782. PubMed
Although Notch signaling plays important roles in lineage commitment and differentiation of multiple cell types including conventional T cells, nothing is currently known concerning Notch function in innate-like T cells. We have found that the homeostasis of several well-characterized populations of innate-like T cells including invariant NKT cells (iNKT), CD8alphaalphaTCRalphabeta small intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes, and innate memory phenotype CD8 T cells is controlled by Notch. Notch selectively regulates hepatic iNKT cell survival via tissue-restricted control of B cell lymphoma 2 and IL-7Ralpha expression. More generally, Notch regulation of innate-like T cell homeostasis involves both cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic mechanisms and relies upon context-dependent interactions with Notch ligand-expressing fibroblastic stromal cells. Collectively, using conditional ablation of Notch receptors on peripheral T cells or Notch ligands on putative fibroblastic stromal cells, we show that Notch signaling is indispensable for the homeostasis of three tissue-restricted populations of innate-like T cells: hepatic iNKT, CD8alphaalphaTCRalphabeta small intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes, and innate memory phenotype CD8 T cells, thus supporting a generalized role for Notch in innate T cell homeostasis.
Deligne, C., et al. (2015). “Anti-CD20 therapy induces a memory Th1 response through the IFN-gamma/IL-12 axis and prevents protumor regulatory T-cell expansion in mice.” Leukemia 29(4): 947-957. PubMed
The long-lasting clinical response by lymphoma patients to anti-CD20 therapy has been attributed to the induction of an anti-tumor adaptive immunity. We previously demonstrated that a CD4-dependent mechanism is responsible for the long-term protection of CD20(+) tumor-bearing mice by anti-CD20 treatment. Here, we compare tumor immunity in tumor-bearing animals that did or did not receive anti-CD20 treatment. Splenic CD4(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) expanded substantially in untreated mice that exhibited then a reduced survival, whereas Tregs depletion led to long-term survival of the animals, suggesting the establishment of a Treg-dependent immunosuppressive environment after tumor injection. Strikingly, anti-CD20 therapy reversed the initial expansion of Tregs, and was accompanied by a marked increase in the number of Th1 cells, with no detectable change in Th2 and Th17 cell numbers. Interleukin-12 serum level was also increased by the anti-CD20 treatment, and activated myeloid dendritic cells producing interleukin-12 could be detected in lymph nodes of treated animals, while interferon-gamma blockade strongly reduced survival. Also, CD4(+) effector memory T cells were evidenced in surviving animals, and the transfer of CD4(+) T cells induced long-term protection. Thus, anti-CD20 therapy promotes strong anti-tumor adaptive immunity, opposes Treg expansion and inhibits tumor cells from maintaining an immunosuppressive environment.
Oeser, K., et al. (2015). “Conditional IL-4/IL-13-deficient mice reveal a critical role of innate immune cells for protective immunity against gastrointestinal helminths.” Mucosal Immunol 8(3): 672-682. PubMed
Approximately one-third of the world population is infected with gastrointestinal helminths. Studies in mouse models have demonstrated that the cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 are essential for worm expulsion, but the critical cellular source of these cytokines is poorly defined. Here, we compared the immune response to Nippostrongylus brasiliensis in wild-type, T cell-specific IL-4/IL-13-deficient and general IL-4/IL-13-deficient mice. We show that T cell-derived IL-4/IL-13 promoted T helper 2 (Th2) polarization in a paracrine manner, differentiation of alternatively activated macrophages, and tissue recruitment of innate effector cells. However, innate IL-4/IL-13 played the critical role for induction of goblet cell hyperplasia and secretion of effector molecules like Mucin5ac and RELMbeta in the small intestine. Surprisingly, T cell-specific IL-4/IL-13-deficient and wild-type mice cleared the parasite with comparable efficiency, whereas IL-4/IL-13-deficient mice showed impaired expulsion. These findings demonstrate that IL-4/IL-13 produced by cells of the innate immune system is required and sufficient to initiate effective type 2 immune responses resulting in protective immunity against N. brasiliensis.
Tanaka, S., et al. (2014). “CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha negatively regulates IFN-gamma expression in T cells.” J Immunol 193(12): 6152-6160. PubMed
Humoral immunity, including Ab switching and somatic hypermutation, is critically regulated by CD4(+) T cells. T follicular helper (Tfh) cells have been recently shown to be a distinct T cell subset important in germinal center reactions. The transcriptional regulation of Tfh cell development and function has not been well understood. In this study, we report that C/EBPalpha, a basic region/leucine zipper transcription factor, is highly expressed in Tfh cells. Cebpa-deficient CD4(+) T cells exhibit enhanced IFN-gamma expression in vitro and in vivo. T cell-specific Cebpa knockout mice, although not defective in Tfh cell generation, produce significantly increased levels of IgG2a/b and IgG3 following immunization with a protein Ag. Moreover, C/EBPalpha binds to the Ifng gene and inhibits T-bet-driven Ifng transcription in a DNA binding-dependent manner. Our study thus demonstrates that C/EBPalpha restricts IFN-gamma expression in T cells to allow proper class switching by B cells.
Booth, A. J., et al. (2011). “IL-6 promotes cardiac graft rejection mediated by CD4+ cells.” J Immunol 187(11): 5764-5771. PubMed
IL-6 mediates numerous immunologic effects relevant to transplant rejection; however, its specific contributions to these processes are not fully understood. To this end, we neutralized IL-6 in settings of acute cardiac allograft rejection associated with either CD8(+) or CD4(+) cell-dominant responses. In a setting of CD8(+) cell-dominant graft rejection, IL-6 neutralization delayed the onset of acute rejection while decreasing graft infiltrate and inverting anti-graft Th1/Th2 priming dominance in recipients. IL-6 neutralization markedly prolonged graft survival in the setting of CD4(+) cell-mediated acute rejection and was associated with decreased graft infiltrate, altered Th1 responses, and reduced serum alloantibody. Furthermore, in CD4(+) cell-dominated rejection, IL-6 neutralization was effective when anti-IL-6 administration was delayed by as many as 6 d posttransplant. Finally, IL-6-deficient graft recipients were protected from CD4(+) cell-dominant responses, suggesting that IL-6 production by graft recipients, rather than grafts, is necessary for this type of rejection. Collectively, these observations define IL-6 as a critical promoter of graft infiltration and a shaper of T cell lineage development in cardiac graft rejection. In light of these findings, the utility of therapeutics targeting IL-6 should be considered for preventing cardiac allograft rejection.