InVivoMAb anti-mouse CD70 (Clone: FR70)
Quinn, M., et al. (2015). "Memory T cells specific for murine cytomegalovirus re-emerge after multiple challenges and recapitulate immunity in various adoptive transfer scenarios." J Immunol 194(4): 1726-1736. PubMed
Reconstitution of CMV-specific immunity after transplant remains a primary clinical objective to prevent CMV disease, and adoptive immunotherapy of CMV-specific T cells can be an effective therapeutic approach. Because of viral persistence, most CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells become terminally differentiated effector phenotype CD8(+) T cells (TEFF). A minor subset retains a memory-like phenotype (memory phenotype CD8(+) T cells ), but it is unknown whether these cells retain memory function or persist over time. Interestingly, recent studies suggest that CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells with different phenotypes have different abilities to reconstitute sustained immunity after transfer. The immunology of human CMV infections is reflected in the murine CMV (MCMV) model. We found that human CMV- and MCMV-specific T cells displayed shared genetic programs, validating the MCMV model for studies of CMV-specific T cells in vivo. The MCMV-specific TM population was stable over time and retained a proliferative capacity that was vastly superior to TEFF. Strikingly, after transfer, TM established sustained and diverse T cell populations even after multiple challenges. Although both TEFF and TM could protect Rag(-/-) mice, only TM persisted after transfer into immune replete, latently infected recipients and responded if recipient immunity was lost. Interestingly, transferred TM did not expand until recipient immunity was lost, supporting that competition limits the Ag stimulation of TM. Ultimately, these data show that CMV-specific TM retain memory function during MCMV infection and can re-establish CMV immunity when necessary. Thus, TM may be a critical component for consistent, long-term adoptive immunotherapy success.
Riether, C., et al. (2015). "Tyrosine kinase inhibitor-induced CD70 expression mediates drug resistance in leukemia stem cells by activating Wnt signaling." Sci Transl Med 7(298): 298ra119. PubMed
In chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), oncogenic BCR-ABL1 activates the Wnt pathway, which is fundamental for leukemia stem cell (LSC) maintenance. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment reduces Wnt signaling in LSCs and often results in molecular remission of CML; however, LSCs persist long term despite BCR-ABL1 inhibition, ultimately causing disease relapse. We demonstrate that TKIs induce the expression of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family ligand CD70 in LSCs by down-regulating microRNA-29, resulting in reduced CD70 promoter DNA methylation and up-regulation of the transcription factor specificity protein 1. The resulting increase in CD70 triggered CD27 signaling and compensatory Wnt pathway activation. Combining TKIs with CD70 blockade effectively eliminated human CD34(+) CML stem/progenitor cells in xenografts and LSCs in a murine CML model. Therefore, targeting TKI-induced expression of CD70 and compensatory Wnt signaling resulting from the CD70/CD27 interaction is a promising approach to overcoming treatment resistance in CML LSCs.
Villegas-Mendez, A., et al. (2015). "Parasite-specific CD4+IFN-gamma+IL-10+ T cells distribute within both lymphoid and non-lymphoid compartments and are controlled systemically by IL-27 and ICOS during blood-stage malaria infection." Infect Immun. pii: IAI.01100-15. PubMed
Immune-mediated pathology in IL-10 deficient mice during blood-stage malaria infection typically manifests in non-lymphoid organs, such as the liver and lung. Thus, it is critical to define the cellular sources of IL-10 in these sensitive non-lymphoid compartments during infection. Moreover, it is important to determine if IL-10 production is controlled through conserved or disparate molecular programmes in distinct anatomical locations during malaria infection, as this may enable spatiotemporal tuning of the regulatory immune response. In this study, using dual IFN-gamma-YFP and IL-10-GFP reporter mice we show that CD4+YFP+ T cells are the major source of IL-10 in both lymphoid and non-lymphoid compartments throughout the course of blood-stage P. yoelii infection. Mature splenic CD4+YFP+GFP+ T cells, which preferentially expressed high levels of CCR5, were capable of migrating to and seeding the non-lymphoid tissues, indicating that the systemically distributed host-protective cells have a common developmental history. Despite exhibiting comparable phenotypes, CD4+YFP+GFP+ T cells from the liver and lung produced significantly higher quantities of IL-10 than their splenic counterparts, showing that the CD4+YFP+GFP+ T cells exert graded functions in distinct tissue locations during infection. Unexpectedly, given the unique environmental conditions within discrete non-lymphoid and lymphoid organs, we show that IL-10 production by CD4+YFP+ T cells is controlled systemically during malaria infection through IL-27R signalling that is supported post-CD4+ T cell priming by ICOS signalling. The results in this study substantially improve our understanding of the systemic IL-10 response to malaria infection, particularly within sensitive non-lymphoid organs.
Allam, A., et al. (2014). "Dual function of CD70 in viral infection: modulator of early cytokine responses and activator of adaptive responses." J Immunol 193(2): 871-878. PubMed
The role of the TNF family member CD70 in adaptive T cell responses has been intensively studied, but its function in innate responses is still under investigation. In this study, we show that CD70 inhibits the early innate response to murine CMV (MCMV) but is essential for the optimal generation of virus-specific CD8 T cells. CD70(-/-) mice reacted to MCMV infection with a robust type I IFN and proinflammatory cytokine response. This response was sufficient for initial control of MCMV, although at later time points, CD70(-/-) mice became more susceptible to MCMV infection. The heightened cytokine response during the early phase of MCMV infection in CD70(-/-) mice was paralleled by a reduction in regulatory T cells (Treg). Treg from naive CD70(-/-) mice were not as efficient at suppressing T cell proliferation compared with Treg from naive wild-type mice, and depletion of Treg during MCMV infection in Foxp3-diphtheria toxin receptor mice or in wild-type mice recapitulated the phenotype observed in CD70(-/-) mice. Our study demonstrates that although CD70 is required for the activation of the antiviral adaptive response, it has a regulatory role in early cytokine responses to viruses such as MCMV, possibly through maintenance of Treg survival and function.
Ballesteros-Tato, A., et al. (2014). "Epitope-specific regulation of memory programming by differential duration of antigen presentation to influenza-specific CD8(+) T cells." Immunity 41(1): 127-140. PubMed
Memory CD8(+) T cells are programmed during the primary response for robust secondary responsiveness. Here we show that CD8(+) T cells responding to different epitopes of influenza virus received qualitatively different signals during the primary response that altered their secondary responsiveness. Nucleoprotein (NP)-specific CD8(+) T cells encountered antigen on CD40-licensed, CD70-expressing, CD103(-)CD11b(hi) dendritic cells (DCs) at later times in the primary response. As a consequence, they maintained CD25 expression and responded to interleukin-2 (IL-2) and CD27, which together programmed their robust secondary proliferative capacity and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-producing ability. In contrast, polymerase (PA)-specific CD8(+) T cells did not encounter antigen-bearing, CD40-activated DCs at later times in the primary response, did not receive CD27 and CD25 signals, and were not programmed to become memory CD8(+) T cells with strong proliferative and cytokine-producing ability. As a result, CD8(+) T cells responding to abundant antigens, like NP, dominated the secondary response.
Krupnick, A. S., et al. (2014). "Central memory CD8+ T lymphocytes mediate lung allograft acceptance." J Clin Invest 124(3): 1130-1143. PubMed
Memory T lymphocytes are commonly viewed as a major barrier for long-term survival of organ allografts and are thought to accelerate rejection responses due to their rapid infiltration into allografts, low threshold for activation, and ability to produce inflammatory mediators. Because memory T cells are usually associated with rejection, preclinical protocols have been developed to target this population in transplant recipients. Here, using a murine model, we found that costimulatory blockade-mediated lung allograft acceptance depended on the rapid infiltration of the graft by central memory CD8+ T cells (CD44(hi)CD62L(hi)CCR7+). Chemokine receptor signaling and alloantigen recognition were required for trafficking of these memory T cells to lung allografts. Intravital 2-photon imaging revealed that CCR7 expression on CD8+ T cells was critical for formation of stable synapses with antigen-presenting cells, resulting in IFN-gamma production, which induced NO and downregulated alloimmune responses. Thus, we describe a critical role for CD8+ central memory T cells in lung allograft acceptance and highlight the need for tailored approaches for tolerance induction in the lung.
Mahmud, S. A., et al. (2014). "Costimulation via the tumor-necrosis factor receptor superfamily couples TCR signal strength to the thymic differentiation of regulatory T cells." Nat Immunol 15(5): 473-481. PubMed
Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) express members of the tumor-necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily (TNFRSF), but the role of those receptors in the thymic development of Treg cells is undefined. We found here that Treg cell progenitors had high expression of the TNFRSF members GITR, OX40 and TNFR2. Expression of those receptors correlated directly with the signal strength of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and required the coreceptor CD28 and the kinase TAK1. The neutralization of ligands that are members of the TNF superfamily (TNFSF) diminished the development of Treg cells. Conversely, TNFRSF agonists enhanced the differentiation of Treg cell progenitors by augmenting responsiveness of the interleukin 2 receptor (IL-2R) and transcription factor STAT5. Costimulation with the ligand of GITR elicited dose-dependent enrichment for cells of lower TCR affinity in the Treg cell repertoire. In vivo, combined inhibition of GITR, OX40 and TNFR2 abrogated the development of Treg cells. Thus, expression of members of the TNFRSF on Treg cell progenitors translated strong TCR signals into molecular parameters that specifically promoted the development of Treg cells and shaped the Treg cell repertoire.
McKinstry, K. K., et al. (2014). "Effector CD4 T-cell transition to memory requires late cognate interactions that induce autocrine IL-2." Nat Commun 5: 5377. PubMed
It is unclear how CD4 T-cell memory formation is regulated following pathogen challenge, and when critical mechanisms act to determine effector T-cell fate. Here, we report that following influenza infection most effectors require signals from major histocompatibility complex class II molecules and CD70 during a late window well after initial priming to become memory. During this timeframe, effector cells must produce IL-2 or be exposed to high levels of paracrine or exogenously added IL-2 to survive an otherwise rapid default contraction phase. Late IL-2 promotes survival through acute downregulation of apoptotic pathways in effector T cells and by permanently upregulating their IL-7 receptor expression, enabling IL-7 to sustain them as memory T cells. This new paradigm defines a late checkpoint during the effector phase at which cognate interactions direct CD4 T-cell memory generation.
Alkhamis, T., et al. (2012). "Antibody combination therapy targeting CD25, CD70 and CD8 reduces islet inflammation and improves glycaemia in diabetic mice." Clin Exp Immunol 170(2): 139-148. PubMed
Destruction of pancreatic islets in type 1 diabetes is caused by infiltrating, primed and activated T cells. In a clinical setting this autoimmune process is already in an advanced stage before intervention therapy can be administered. Therefore, an effective intervention needs to reduce islet inflammation and preserve any remaining islet function. In this study we have investigated the role of targeting activated T cells in reversing autoimmune diabetes. A combination therapy consisting of CD25-, CD70- and CD8-specific monoclonal antibodies was administered to non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice with either new-onset diabetes or with advanced diabetes. In NOD mice with new-onset diabetes antibody combination treatment reversed hyperglycaemia and achieved long-term protection from diabetes (blood glucose <13.9 mmol/l) in >50% of mice. In contrast, in the control, untreated group blood glucose levels continued to increase and none of the mice were protected from diabetes (P < 0.0001). Starting therapy early when hyperglycaemia was relatively mild proved critical, as the mice with advanced diabetes showed less efficient control of blood glucose and shorter life span. Histological analysis (insulitis score) showed islet preservation and reduced immune infiltration in all treated groups, compared to their controls. In conclusion, antibody combination therapy that targets CD25, CD70 and CD8 results in decreased islet infiltration and improved blood glucose levels in NOD mice with established diabetes.
Baumgartner, C. K., et al. (2012). "A TCR affinity threshold regulates memory CD4 T cell differentiation following vaccination." J Immunol 189(5): 2309-2317. PubMed
Diverse Ag-specific memory TCR repertoires are essential for protection against pathogens. Subunit vaccines that combine peptide or protein Ags with TLR agonists are very potent at inducing T cell immune responses, but their capacity to elicit stable and diverse memory CD4 T cell repertoires has not been evaluated. In this study, we examined the evolution of a complex Ag-specific population during the transition from primary effectors to memory T cells after peptide or protein vaccination. Both vaccination regimens induced equally diverse effector CD4 TCR repertoires, but peptide vaccines skewed the memory CD4 TCR repertoire toward high-affinity clonotypes whereas protein vaccines maintained low-affinity clonotypes in the memory compartment. CD27-mediated signaling was essential for the maintenance of low-affinity clonotypes after protein vaccination but was not sufficient to promote their survival following peptide vaccination. The rapid culling of the TCR repertoire in peptide-immunized mice coincided with a prolonged proliferation phase during which low-affinity clonotypes disappeared despite exhibiting no sign of enhanced apoptosis. Our study reveals a novel affinity threshold for memory CD4 T cell differentiation following vaccination and suggests a role for nonapoptotic cell death in the regulation of CD4 T cell clonal selection.
Kurche, J. S., et al. (2010). "Comparison of OX40 ligand and CD70 in the promotion of CD4+ T cell responses." J Immunol 185(4): 2106-2115. PubMed
The TNF superfamily members CD70 and OX40 ligand (OX40L) were reported to be important for CD4(+) T cell expansion and differentiation. However, the relative contribution of these costimulatory signals in driving CD4(+) T cell responses has not been addressed. In this study, we found that OX40L is a more important determinant than CD70 of the primary CD4(+) T cell response to multiple immunization regimens. Despite the ability of a combined TLR and CD40 agonist (TLR/CD40) stimulus to provoke appreciable expression of CD70 and OX40L on CD8(+) dendritic cells, resulting CD4(+) T cell responses were substantially reduced by Ab blockade of OX40L and, to a lesser degree, CD70. In contrast, the CD8(+) T cell responses to combined TLR/CD40 immunization were exclusively dependent on CD70. These requirements for CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell activation were not limited to the use of combined TLR/CD40 immunization, because vaccinia virus challenge elicited primarily OX40L-dependent CD4 responses and exclusively CD70-dependent CD8(+) T cell responses. Attenuation of CD4(+) T cell priming induced by OX40L blockade was independent of signaling through the IL-12R, but it was reduced further by coblockade of CD70. Thus, costimulation by CD70 or OX40L seems to be necessary for primary CD4(+) T cell responses to multiple forms of immunization, and each may make independent contributions to CD4(+) T cell priming.