About InVivoMAb anti-mouse RANKL (CD254)
The IK22/5 monoclonal antibody reacts with mouse RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand) also known as CD254 and TRANCE (TNF-related activation-induced cytokine). RANKL is a 35 kDa type II membrane protein that belongs to the TNF superfamily. RANKL is expressed on activated T lymphocytes in the lung, thymus, and lymph nodes and on osteoclasts. RANKL has been implicated in the regulation of T cell and dendritic cell interactions as well as osteoclast differentiation. Additionally, RANKL was found to be critical for osteoclast differentiation.
InVivoMAb anti-mouse RANKL (CD254) Specifications
|Isotype||Rat IgG2a, κ|
|Recommended Isotype Control(s)|
|Recommended Dilution Buffer|
|Immunogen||NSO-derived recombinant mouse RANKL|
in vivo RANKL blockade
|Sterility||0.2 μM filtered|
|Production||Purified from tissue culture supernatant in an animal free facility|
|Molecular Weight||150 kDa|
|Storage||The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.|
InVivoMAb anti-mouse RANKL (CD254) (Clone: IK22/5)
Khan, I. S., et al. (2014). “Enhancement of an anti-tumor immune response by transient blockade of central T cell tolerance.” J Exp Med 211(5): 761-768. PubMed
Thymic central tolerance is a critical process that prevents autoimmunity but also presents a challenge to the generation of anti-tumor immune responses. Medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) eliminate self-reactive T cells by displaying a diverse repertoire of tissue-specific antigens (TSAs) that are also shared by tumors. Therefore, while protecting against autoimmunity, mTECs simultaneously limit the generation of tumor-specific effector T cells by expressing tumor self-antigens. This ectopic expression of TSAs largely depends on autoimmune regulator (Aire), which is expressed in mature mTECs. Thus, therapies to deplete Aire-expressing mTECs represent an attractive strategy to increase the pool of tumor-specific effector T cells. Recent work has implicated the TNF family members RANK and RANK-Ligand (RANKL) in the development of Aire-expressing mTECs. We show that in vivo RANKL blockade selectively and transiently depletes Aire and TSA expression in the thymus to create a window of defective negative selection. Furthermore, we demonstrate that RANKL blockade can rescue melanoma-specific T cells from thymic deletion and that persistence of these tumor-specific effector T cells promoted increased host survival in response to tumor challenge. These results indicate that modulating central tolerance through RANKL can alter thymic output and potentially provide therapeutic benefit by enhancing anti-tumor immunity.
Metzger, T. C., et al. (2013). “Lineage tracing and cell ablation identify a post-Aire-expressing thymic epithelial cell population.” Cell Rep 5(1): 166-179. PubMed
Thymic epithelial cells in the medulla (mTECs) play a critical role in enforcing central tolerance through expression and presentation of tissue-specific antigens (TSAs) and deletion of autoreactive thymocytes. TSA expression requires autoimmune regulator (Aire), a transcriptional activator present in a subset of mTECs characterized by high CD80 and major histocompatibility complex II expression and a lack of potential for differentiation or proliferation. Here, using an Aire-DTR transgenic line, we show that short-term ablation specifically targets Aire(+) mTECs, which quickly undergo RANK-dependent recovery. Repeated ablation also affects Aire(-) mTECs, and using an inducible Aire-Cre fate-mapping system, we find that this results from the loss of a subset of mTECs that showed prior expression of Aire, maintains intermediate TSA expression, and preferentially migrates toward the center of the medulla. These results clearly identify a distinct stage of mTEC development and underscore the diversity of mTECs that play a key role in maintaining tolerance.
Sherlock, J. P., et al. (2012). “IL-23 induces spondyloarthropathy by acting on ROR-gammat+ CD3+CD4-CD8- entheseal resident T cells.” Nat Med 18(7): 1069-1076. PubMed
The spondyloarthropathies are a group of rheumatic diseases that are associated with inflammation at anatomically distal sites, particularly the tendon-bone attachments (entheses) and the aortic root. Serum concentrations of interleukin-23 (IL-23) are elevated and polymorphisms in the IL-23 receptor are associated with ankyosing spondylitis, however, it remains unclear whether IL-23 acts locally at the enthesis or distally on circulating cell populations. We show here that IL-23 is essential in enthesitis and acts on previously unidentified IL-23 receptor (IL-23R)(+), RAR-related orphan receptor gammat (ROR-gammat)(+)CD3(+)CD4(-)CD8(-), stem cell antigen 1 (Sca1)(+) entheseal resident T cells. These cells allow entheses to respond to IL-23 in vitro-in the absence of further cellular recruitment–and to elaborate inflammatory mediators including IL-6, IL-17, IL-22 and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1). Notably, the in vivo expression of IL-23 is sufficient to phenocopy the human disease, with the specific and characteristic development of enthesitis and entheseal new bone formation in the initial complete absence of synovitis. As in the human condition, inflammation also develops in vivo at the aortic root and valve, which are structurally similar to entheses. The presence of these entheseal resident cells and their production of IL-22, which activates signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-dependent osteoblast-mediated bone remodeling, explains why dysregulation of IL-23 results in inflammation at this precise anatomical site.