About InVivoMAb anti-mouse PSGL-1 (CD162)
The 4RA10 monoclonal antibody reacts with mouse P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) also known as CD162. PSGL-1 is a 230 kDa glycoprotein that is expressed by bone marrow-derived mast and dendritic cells, splenic leukocytes, platelets, peripheral blood neutrophils, and T lymphocytes. PSGL-1 is a ligand for P-selectin (CD62P) and plays roles in leukocyte rolling, the migration of leukocytes into inflamed tissues, and responses to vascular injury. The 4RA10 antibody is reported to block the binding of mouse leukocytes to CD62P and CD62L.
InVivoMAb anti-mouse PSGL-1 (CD162) Specifications
|Isotype||Rat IgG1, κ|
|Recommended Isotype Control(s)|
|Recommended Dilution Buffer|
|Immunogen||Mouse PSGL-1 human IgG1 fusion protein|
|Sterility||0.2 μM filtered|
|Production||Purified from tissue culture supernatant in an animal free facility|
|Molecular Weight||150 kDa|
|Storage||The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.|
InVivoMAb anti-mouse PSGL-1 (CD162) (Clone: 4RA10)
Biswas, A., et al. (2015). “Ly6C(high) monocytes control cerebral toxoplasmosis.” J Immunol 194(7): 3223-3235. PubMed
Cerebral infection with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii is followed by activation of resident cells and recruitment of immune cells from the periphery to the CNS. In this study, we show that a subset of myeloid cells, namely Ly6C(high)CCR2(+) inflammatory monocytes that infiltrate the brain upon chronic T. gondii infection, plays a decisive role in host defense. Depletion of this monocyte subset resulted in elevated parasite load and decreased survival of infected mice, suggesting their crucial role. Notably, Ly6C(high)CCR2(+) monocytes governed parasite control due to production of proinflammatory mediators, such as IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, inducible NO synthase, TNF, and reactive oxygen intermediate. Interestingly, Ly6C(high)CCR2(+) monocytes were also able to produce the regulatory cytokine IL-10, revealing their dual feature. Moreover, we confirmed by adoptive transfer that the recruited monocytes further develop into two distinct subpopulations contributing to parasite control and profound host defense. The differentiated Ly6C(int)CCR2(+)F4/80(int) subset upregulated MHC I and MHC II molecules, suggesting dendritic cell properties such as interaction with T cells, whereas the Ly6C(neg)F4/80(high) cell subset displayed elevated phagocytic capacity while upregulating triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2. Finally, we have shown that the recruitment of Ly6C(high) monocytes to the CNS is regulated by P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1. These results indicate the critical importance of recruited Ly6C(high) monocytes upon cerebral toxoplasmosis and reveal the behavior of further differentiated myeloid-derived mononuclear cell subsets in parasite control and immune regulation of the CNS.
Guidotti, L. G., et al. (2015). “Immunosurveillance of the liver by intravascular effector CD8(+) T cells.” Cell 161(3): 486-500. PubMed
Effector CD8(+) T cells (CD8 TE) play a key role during hepatotropic viral infections. Here, we used advanced imaging in mouse models of hepatitis B virus (HBV) pathogenesis to understand the mechanisms whereby these cells home to the liver, recognize antigens, and deploy effector functions. We show that circulating CD8 TE arrest within liver sinusoids by docking onto platelets previously adhered to sinusoidal hyaluronan via CD44. After the initial arrest, CD8 TE actively crawl along liver sinusoids and probe sub-sinusoidal hepatocytes for the presence of antigens by extending cytoplasmic protrusions through endothelial fenestrae. Hepatocellular antigen recognition triggers effector functions in a diapedesis-independent manner and is inhibited by the processes of sinusoidal defenestration and capillarization that characterize liver fibrosis. These findings reveal the dynamic behavior whereby CD8 TE control hepatotropic pathogens and suggest how liver fibrosis might reduce CD8 TE immune surveillance toward infected or transformed hepatocytes.
McPherson, R. C., et al. (2014). “Epigenetic modification of the PD-1 (Pdcd1) promoter in effector CD4(+) T cells tolerized by peptide immunotherapy.” Elife 3. doi: 10.7554/eLife.03416. PubMed
Clinically effective antigen-based immunotherapy must silence antigen-experienced effector T cells (Teff) driving ongoing immune pathology. Using CD4(+) autoimmune Teff cells, we demonstrate that peptide immunotherapy (PIT) is strictly dependent upon sustained T cell expression of the co-inhibitory molecule PD-1. We found high levels of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) at the PD-1 (Pdcd1) promoter of non-tolerant T cells. 5hmC was lost in response to PIT, with DNA hypomethylation of the promoter. We identified dynamic changes in expression of the genes encoding the Ten-Eleven-Translocation (TET) proteins that are associated with the oxidative conversion 5-methylcytosine and 5hmC, during cytosine demethylation. We describe a model whereby promoter demethylation requires the co-incident expression of permissive histone modifications at the Pdcd1 promoter together with TET availability. This combination was only seen in tolerant Teff cells following PIT, but not in Teff that transiently express PD-1. Epigenetic changes at the Pdcd1 locus therefore determine the tolerizing potential of TCR-ligation.
Yokota, N., et al. (2014). “Contributions of thrombin targets to tissue factor-dependent metastasis in hyperthrombotic mice.” J Thromb Haemost 12(1): 71-81. PubMed
BACKGROUND: Tumor cell tissue factor (TF)-initiated coagulation supports hematogenous metastasis by fibrin formation, platelet activation and monocyte/macrophage recruitment. Recent studies identified host anticoagulant mechanisms as a major impediment to successful hematogenous tumor cell metastasis. OBJECTIVE: Here we address mechanisms that contribute to enhanced metastasis in hyperthrombotic mice with functional thrombomodulin deficiency (TM(Pro) mice). METHODS: Pharmacological and genetic approaches were combined to characterize relevant thrombin targets in a mouse model of experimental hematogenous metastasis. RESULTS: TF-dependent, but contact pathway-independent, syngeneic breast cancer metastasis was associated with marked platelet hyperreactivity and formation of leukocyte-platelet aggregates in immune-competent TM(Pro) mice. Blockade of CD11b or genetic deletion of platelet glycoprotein Ibalpha excluded contributions of these receptors to enhanced platelet-dependent metastasis in hyperthrombotic mice. Mice with very low levels of the endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) did not phenocopy the enhanced metastasis seen in TM(Pro) mice. Genetic deletion of the thrombin receptor PAR1 or endothelial thrombin signaling targets alone did not diminish enhanced metastasis in TM(Pro) mice. Combined deficiency of PAR1 on tumor cells and the host reduced metastasis in TM(Pro) mice. CONCLUSIONS: Metastasis in the hyperthrombotic TM(Pro) mouse model is mediated by platelet hyperreactivity and contributions of PAR1 signaling on tumor and host cells.
Rivera-Nieves, J., et al. (2006). “Critical role of endothelial P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 in chronic murine ileitis.” J Exp Med 203(4): 907-917. PubMed
L-selectin ligands might be relevant for inflammatory cell trafficking into the small intestine in a spontaneous model of chronic ileitis (i.e., SAMP1/YitFc mice). Immunoblockade of peripheral node addressin or mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 failed to ameliorate ileitis, whereas P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (PSGL-1) neutralization attenuated both the adoptively transferred and spontaneous disease. PSGL-1 was detected in venules of mesenteric lymph node and small intestine by immunohistochemistry and confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry. In addition, reconstitution of wild-type mice with PSGL-1(-/-) bone marrow demonstrated that PSGL-1 messenger RNA and PSGL-1 protein expression remained on endothelium, localized within mesenteric lymph node and small intestine. Endothelial PSGL-1 bound P-selectin-IgG and its blockade or genetic deletion altered the recruitment of lymphocytes to the small intestine, as revealed by intravital microscopy and homing studies. Endothelial expression of PSGL-1 adds a new dimension to the various cellular interactions involved in small intestinal recruitment. Thus, the multiple roles of PSGL-1 may explain why targeting this single adhesion molecule results in attenuation of chronic murine ileitis, a disease previously resistant to antiadhesion molecule strategies.
Zanardo, R. C., et al. (2004). “A down-regulatable E-selectin ligand is functionally important for PSGL-1-independent leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions.” Blood 104(12): 3766-3773. PubMed
P-selectin glycoprotein-1 (PSGL-1) supports P-selectin-dependent rolling in vivo and in vitro. However, controversy exists regarding the importance of PSGL-1-dependent and -independent E-selectin rolling. Using antibodies against PSGL-1 and PSGL-1(-/-) mice, we demonstrated abolition of P-selectin-dependent rolling but only partial inhibition of E-selectin-mediated rolling in the cremaster microcirculation following local administration of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). In vitro studies demonstrated that binding of recombinant mouse E-selectin chimera to PSGL-1(-/-) neutrophils was dramatically decreased in mice treated systemically but not locally with TNF-alpha. Further, PSGL-1 blockade abolished E-selectin-dependent rolling in wild-type mice following systemic TNF-alpha administration but not local TNF-alpha administration. Together, these data support an E-selectin ligand present on PSGL-1(-/-) neutrophils that is down-regulatable upon systemic but not local activation. To determine whether the PSGL-1-independent E-selectin ligand was physiologically important, we used a P- and E-selectin-dependent cutaneous contact hypersensitivity model. Binding studies showed no E-selectin ligand down-regulation in this model. The few cells that rolled on E-selectin ligand following PSGL-1 antibody administration or in PSGL-1 deficiency were sufficient to induce profound contact hypersensitivity. In conclusion, E-selectin mediates PSGL-1-dependent and independent rolling and the latter can be down-regulated by systemic activation and can replace PSGL-1 to support the development of inflammation.