InVivoMAb anti-mouse CD8 (Lyt 2.1) (Clone: 116-13.1 (HB129))
Racine, J. J., et al. (2014). "Induction of mixed chimerism depletes pre-existing and de novo-developed autoreactive B cells in autoimmune NOD mice." Diabetes 63(6): 2051-2062. PubMed
Destruction of pancreatic islet beta-cells in type 1 diabetes (T1D) is mainly mediated by autoimmune T and B lymphocytes. We reported that induction of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched mixed chimerism reversed autoimmunity and reestablished thymic negative selection of autoreactive T cells in NOD mice, but it is still unclear how mixed chimerism tolerizes autoreactive B cells. The current studies were designed to reveal the mechanisms on how mixed chimerism tolerizes autoreactive B cells in T1D. Accordingly, mixed chimerism was induced in NOD mice through radiation-free nonmyeloablative anti-CD3/CD8 conditioning and infusion of donor CD4(+) T cell-depleted spleen and whole bone marrow (BM) cells or through myeloablative total body irradiation conditioning and reconstitution with T cell-depleted BM cells from donor and host. Kinetic analysis of percentage and yield of preplasma and plasma B cells, newly developed B-cell subsets, and their apoptosis was performed 30-60 days after transplantation. Induction of MHC-mismatched mixed chimerism results in depleting host-type pre-existing preplasma and plasma B cells as well as augmenting apoptosis of immature transitional T1 B cells, including insulin-specific B cells in a donor B cell-dependent manner. Therefore, induction of MHC-mismatched mixed chimerism depletes pre-existing and de novo-developed autoreactive B cells.
Wang, M., et al. (2014). "MHC-mismatched chimerism is required for induction of transplantation tolerance in autoimmune nonobese diabetic recipients." J Immunol 193(4): 2005-2015. PubMed
In nonautoimmune recipients, induction of mixed and complete chimerism with hematopoietic progenitor cells from MHC (HLA)-matched or -mismatched donors are effective approaches for induction of organ transplantation immune tolerance in both animal models and patients. But it is still unclear whether this is the case in autoimmune recipients. With the autoimmune diabetic NOD mouse model, we report that, although mixed and complete MHC-mismatched chimerism provide immune tolerance to donor-type islet and skin transplants, neither mixed nor complete MHC-matched chimerism does. The MHC-mismatched chimerism not only tolerizes the de novo developed, but also the residual pre-existing host-type T cells in a mismatched MHC class II-dependent manner. In the MHC-mismatched chimeras, the residual host-type peripheral T cells appear to be anergic with upregulation of PD-1 and downregulation of IL-7Ralpha. Conversely, in the MHC-matched chimeras, the residual host-type peripheral T cells manifest both alloreactivity and autoreactivity; they not only mediate insulitis and sialitis in the recipient, but also reject allogeneic donor-type islet and skin grafts. Interestingly, transgenic autoreactive BDC2.5 T cells from Rag1(+/+), but not from Rag1(-/-), NOD mice show alloreactivity and mediate both insulitis and rejection of allografts. Taken together, MHC-mismatched, but not MHC-matched, chimerism can effectively provide transplantation immune tolerance in autoimmune recipients.
Yang, Y., et al. (2012). "Antitumor T-cell responses contribute to the effects of dasatinib on c-KIT mutant murine mastocytoma and are potentiated by anti-OX40." Blood 120(23): 4533-4543. PubMed
Targeted and immune-based therapies are thought to eradicate cancer cells by different mechanisms, and these approaches could possibly complement each other when used in combination. In this study, we report that the in vivo antitumor effects of the c-KIT inhibitor, dasatinib, on the c-KIT mutant P815 mastocytoma tumor were substantially dependent on T cell-mediated immunity. We found that dasatinib treatment significantly decreased levels of Tregs while specifically enhancing tumor antigen-specific T-cell responses. We sought to further enhance this therapy with the addition of anti-OX40 antibody, which is known to provide a potent costimulatory signal to T cells. The combination of dasatinib and anti-OX40 antibody resulted in substantially better therapeutic efficacy compared with either drug alone, and this was associated with enhanced accumulation of tumor antigen-specific T cells in the tumor microenvironment. Furthermore, the combination regimen inhibited the function of Tregs and also resulted in significantly up-regulated expression of the IFN-gamma-induced chemokines CXCL9, 10, and 11 in the tumor microenvironment, which provides a feasible mechanism for the enhanced intratumoral CTL infiltration. These studies delineate a strategy by which targeted therapy and immunotherapy may be combined to achieve superior antitumor responses in cancer patients.
Makhlouf, L., et al. (2003). "Allorecognition and effector pathways of islet allograft rejection in normal versus nonobese diabetic mice." J Am Soc Nephrol 14(8): 2168-2175. PubMed
Islet transplantation is becoming an accepted therapy to cure type I diabetes mellitus. The exact mechanisms of islet allograft rejection remain unclear, however. In vivo CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell-depleting strategies and genetically altered mice that did not express MHC class I or class II antigens were used to study the allorecognition and effector pathways of islet allograft rejection in different strains of mice, including autoimmunity-prone nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. In BALB/c mice, islet rejection depended on both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. In C57BL/6 mice, CD8(+) T cells could eventually mediate islet rejection by themselves, but they produced rejection more efficiently with help from CD4(+) T cells stimulated through either the direct or indirect pathway. In C57BL/6 mice, CD4(+) T cells alone caused islet rejection when only the direct pathway was available but not when only the indirect pathway was available. In contrast, in NOD mice, CD4(+) T cells alone, with only the indirect pathway, could mediate islet and cardiac allograft rejection. These findings indicate that different mouse strains can make use of different pathways for T cell-mediated rejection of islet allografts. In addition, they demonstrate that NOD mice, which develop autoimmunity and are known to be resistant to tolerance induction, have an unusually powerful CD4(+) cell indirect mechanism that can cause rejection of both islet and cardiac allografts. These data shed light on the mechanisms of islet allograft rejection in different responder strains, including those with autoimmunity.
Kang, E. S. and J. Iacomini (2002). "Induction of central deletional T cell tolerance by gene therapy." J Immunol 169(4): 1930-1935. PubMed
Transgenic mice expressing an alloreactive TCR specific for the MHC class I Ag K(b) were used to examine the mechanism by which genetic engineering of bone marrow induces T cell tolerance. Reconstitution of lethally irradiated mice with bone marrow infected with retroviruses carrying the MHC class I gene H-2K(b) resulted in lifelong expression of K(b) on bone marrow-derived cells. While CD8 T cells expressing the transgenic TCR developed in control mice reconstituted with mock-transduced bone marrow, CD8 T cells expressing the transgenic TCR failed to develop in mice reconstituted with H-2K(b) transduced bone marrow. Analysis of transgene-expressing CD8 T cells in the thymus and periphery of reconstituted mice revealed that CD8 T cells expressing the transgenic TCR underwent negative selection in the thymus of mice reconstituted with K(b) transduced bone marrow. Negative selection induced by gene therapy resulted in tolerance to K(b). Thus, genetic engineering of bone marrow can be used to alter T cell education in the thymus by inducing negative selection.