About InVivoPlus anti-mouse 4-1BB (CD137)
The 3H3 monoclonal antibody reacts with mouse 4-1BB, a TNF receptor superfamily member also known as CD137. 4-1BB is a 39 kDa transmembrane protein expressed by T lymphocytes, NK cells, dendritic cells, granulocytes, and mast cells. Upon binding its ligand 4-1BBL, 4-1BB provides costimulatory signals to both CD4 and CD8 T cells through the activation of NF-κB, c-Jun and p38 downstream pathways. The importance of the 4-1BB pathway has been underscored in a number of diseases, including cancer. Agonistic anti-4-1BB antibodies have been reported to induce T cell mediated antitumor immunity. The 3H3 antibody is an agonistic antibody that has been shown to stimulate 4-1BB signaling in vivo.
InVivoPlus anti-mouse 4-1BB (CD137) Specifications
|Recommended Isotype Control(s)|
|Recommended Dilution Buffer|
|Immunogen||Mouse CD137 human Fc fusion protein|
|Sterility||0.2 μM filtered|
|Production||Purified from tissue culture supernatant in an animal free facility|
|Molecular Weight||150 kDa|
|*Murine Pathogen Test Results|
|Storage||The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.|
InVivoPlus anti-mouse 4-1BB (CD137)
in vivo activation of 4-1BB
Qi, X., et al. (2019). "Optimization of 4-1BB antibody for cancer immunotherapy by balancing agonistic strength with FcgammaR affinity." Nat Commun 10(1): 2141. PubMed
Costimulation of T cell responses with monoclonal antibody agonists (mAb-AG) targeting 4-1BB showed robust anti-tumor activity in preclinical models, but their clinical development was hampered by low efficacy (Utomilumab) or severe liver toxicity (Urelumab). Here we show that isotype and intrinsic agonistic strength co-determine the efficacy and toxicity of anti-4-1BB mAb-AG. While intrinsically strong agonistic anti-4-1BB can activate 4-1BB in the absence of FcgammaRs, weak agonistic antibodies rely on FcgammaRs to activate 4-1BB. All FcgammaRs can crosslink anti-41BB antibodies to strengthen co-stimulation, but activating FcgammaR-induced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity compromises anti-tumor immunity by deleting 4-1BB(+) cells. This suggests balancing agonistic activity with the strength of FcgammaR interaction as a strategy to engineer 4-1BB mAb-AG with optimal therapeutic performance. As a proof of this concept, we have developed LVGN6051, a humanized 4-1BB mAb-AG that shows high anti-tumor efficacy in the absence of liver toxicity in a mouse model of cancer immunotherapy.
in vitro 4-1BB stimulation
Giardino Torchia, M. L., et al. (2015). “c-IAP ubiquitin protein ligase activity is required for 4-1BB signaling and CD8(+) memory T-cell survival.” Eur J Immunol 45(9): 2672-2682. PubMed
Cellular inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (c-IAP) 1 and 2 are widely expressed ubiquitin protein ligases that regulate a variety of cellular functions, including the sensitivity of T cells to costimulation. 4-1BB is a TNF receptor family member that signals via a complex that includes TRAF family members and the c-IAPs to upregulate NF-kappaB and ERK, and has been implicated in memory T-cell survival. Here, we show that effector and memory T cells from mice expressing a dominant negative E3-inactive c-IAP2 (c-IAP2(H570A) ) have impaired signaling downstream of 4-1BB. When infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, unlike mice in which c-IAPs were acutely downregulated by c-IAP antagonists, the primary response of c-IAP2(H570A) mice was normal. However, the number of antigen-specific CD8(+) but not CD4(+) T cells declined more rapidly and to a greater extent in c-IAP2(H570A) mice than in WT controls. Studies with T-cell adoptive transfer demonstrated that the enhanced decay of memory cells was T-cell intrinsic. Thus, c-IAP E3 activity is required for 4-1BB coreceptor signaling and maintenance of CD8(+) T-cell memory.
in vivo 4-1BB stimulation
Guillerey, C., et al. (2015). “Immunosurveillance and therapy of multiple myeloma are CD226 dependent.” J Clin Invest 125(5): 2077-2089. PubMed
Multiple myeloma (MM) is an age-dependent hematological malignancy. Evaluation of immune interactions that drive MM relies on in vitro experiments that do not reflect the complex cellular stroma involved in MM pathogenesis. Here we used Vk*MYC transgenic mice, which spontaneously develop MM, and demonstrated that the immune system plays a critical role in the control of MM progression and the response to treatment. We monitored Vk*MYC mice that had been crossed with Cd226 mutant mice over a period of 3 years and found that CD226 limits spontaneous MM development. The CD226-dependent anti-myeloma immune response against transplanted Vk*MYC MM cells was mediated both by NK and CD8+ T cells through perforin and IFN-gamma pathways. Moreover, CD226 expression was required for optimal antimyeloma efficacy of cyclophosphamide (CTX) and bortezomib (Btz), which are both standardly used to manage MM in patients. Activation of costimulatory receptor CD137 with mAb (4-1BB) exerted strong antimyeloma activity, while inhibition of coinhibitory receptors PD-1 and CTLA-4 had no effect. Taken together, the results of this study provide in vivo evidence that CD226 is important for MM immunosurveillance and indicate that specific immune components should be targeted for optimal MM treatment efficacy. As progressive immunosuppression associates with MM development, strategies aimed to increase immune functions may have important therapeutic implications in MM.
in vivo 4-1BB stimulation
Kobayashi, T., et al. (2015). “NKT cell-targeted vaccination plus anti-4-1BB antibody generates persistent CD8 T cell immunity against B cell lymphoma.” Oncoimmunology 4(3): e990793. PubMed
Harnessing the immune adjuvant properties of natural killer T (NKT) cells is an effective strategy to generate anticancer immunity. The objective of this study was to increase the potency and durability of vaccine-induced immunity against B cell lymphoma by combining alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer)-loaded tumor cell vaccination with an agonistic antibody targeting the immune checkpoint molecule 4-1BB (CD137). We observed potent synergy when combining vaccination and anti-4-1BB antibody treatment resulting in significantly enhanced survival of mice harboring Emu-myc tumors, including complete eradication of lymphoma in over 50% of mice. Tumor-free survival required interferon gamma (IFNgamma)-dependent expansion of CD8+ T cells and was associated with 4-1BB-mediated differentiation of KLRG1+ effector CD8+ T cells. ‘Cured’ mice were also resistant to lymphoma re-challenge 80 days later indicating successful generation of immunological memory. Overall, our results demonstrate that therapeutic anticancer vaccination against B cell lymphoma using an NKT cell ligand can be boosted by subsequent co-stimulation through 4-1BB leading to a sustainable immune response that may enhance outcomes to conventional treatment.
in vivo 4-1BB stimulation
Tewalt, E. F., et al. (2012). “Lymphatic endothelial cells induce tolerance via PD-L1 and lack of costimulation leading to high-level PD-1 expression on CD8 T cells.” Blood 120(24): 4772-4782. PubMed
Lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) induce peripheral tolerance by direct presentation to CD8 T cells (T(CD8)). We demonstrate that LECs mediate deletion only via programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) ligand 1, despite expressing ligands for the CD160, B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator, and lymphocyte activation gene-3 inhibitory pathways. LECs induce activation and proliferation of T(CD8), but lack of costimulation through 4-1BB leads to rapid high-level expression of PD-1, which in turn inhibits up-regulation of the high-affinity IL-2 receptor that is necessary for T(CD8) survival. Rescue of tyrosinase-specific T(CD8) by interference with PD-1 or provision of costimulation results in autoimmune vitiligo, demonstrating that LECs are significant, albeit suboptimal, antigen-presenting cells. Because LECs express numerous peripheral tissue antigens, lack of costimulation coupled to rapid high-level up-regulation of inhibitory receptors may be generally important in systemic peripheral tolerance.
in vivo 4-1BB stimulation
Verbrugge, I., et al. (2012). “Radiotherapy increases the permissiveness of established mammary tumors to rejection by immunomodulatory antibodies.” Cancer Res 72(13): 3163-3174. PubMed
It is becoming increasingly evident that radiotherapy may benefit from coincident or subsequent immunotherapy. In this study, we examined whether the antitumor effects of radiotherapy, in established triple-negative breast tumors could be enhanced with combinations of clinically relevant monoclonal antibodies (mAb), designed to stimulate immunity [anti-(alpha)-CD137, alpha-CD40] or relieve immunosuppression [alpha-programmed death (PD)-1]. While the concomitant targeting of the costimulatory molecules CD137 and CD40 enhanced the antitumor effects of radiotherapy and promoted the rejection of subcutaneous BALB/c-derived 4T1.2 tumors, this novel combination was noncurative in mice bearing established C57BL/6-derived AT-3 tumors. We identified PD-1 signaling within the AT-3 tumors as a critical limiting factor to the therapeutic efficacy of alpha-CD137 therapy, alone and in combination with radiotherapy. Strikingly, all mice bearing established orthotopic AT-3 mammary tumors were cured when alpha-CD137 and alpha-PD-1 mAbs were combined with single- or low-dose fractionated radiotherapy. CD8+ T cells were essential for curative responses to this combinatorial regime. Interestingly, CD137 expression on tumor-associated CD8+ T cells was largely restricted to a subset that highly expressed PD-1. These CD137+PD-1High CD8+ T cells, persisted in irradiated AT-3 tumors, expressed Tim-3, granzyme B and Ki67 and produced IFN-gamma ex vivo in response to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and ionomycin stimulation. Notably, radiotherapy did not deplete, but enriched tumors of functionally active, tumor-specific effector cells. Collectively, these data show that concomitant targeting of immunostimulatory and inhibitory checkpoints with immunomodulatory mAbs can enhance the curative capacity of radiotherapy in established breast malignancy.
in vivo 4-1BB stimulation
Vezys, V., et al. (2011). “4-1BB signaling synergizes with programmed death ligand 1 blockade to augment CD8 T cell responses during chronic viral infection.” J Immunol 187(4): 1634-1642. PubMed
Previous studies have identified the inhibitory role that the programmed death 1 (PD-1) pathway plays during chronic infection. Blockade of this pathway results in rescue of viral-specific CD8 T cells, as well as reduction of viral loads in mice chronically infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). We tested the effect of combining PD ligand 1 (PD-L1) blockade with an agonistic regimen that induces 4-1BB costimulation during chronic LCMV infection. There is a boosting effect in the rescue of LCMV-specific CD8 T cell responses after dual treatment with PD-L1 blockade and 4-1BB agonistic Abs when the amount and timing of 4-1BB costimulation are carefully controlled. When PD-L1-blocking Abs are given together with a single low dose of anti-4-1BB agonistic Abs, there is an enhanced and stable expansion of viral-specific CD8 T cells. Conversely, when blocking Abs to PD-L1 are given with a repetitive high dose of anti-4-1BB, there is an initial synergistic expansion of viral-specific CD8 T cells by day 7, followed by dramatic apoptosis by day 14. Viral control paralleled CD8 T cell kinetics after dual treatment. By day 7 posttreatment, viral titers were lower in both of the combined regimens (compared with PD-L1 blockade alone). However, whereas the high dose of anti-4-1BB plus PD-L1 blockade resulted in rebound of viral titers to original levels, the low dose of anti-4-1BB plus PD-L1 blockade resulted in a stable reduction of viral loads. These findings demonstrate the importance of carefully manipulating the balance between activating and inhibitory signals to enhance T cell responses during chronic infection.