InVivoPlus anti-mouse IFNγ

Clone Catalog # Category
XMG1.2 BP0055 InVivoPlus Antibodies
$455 - $4225

About InVivoPlus anti-mouse IFNγ

The XMG1.2 monoclonal antibody reacts with mouse IFNγ (interferon gamma) a 20 kDa soluble pleiotropic cytokine and the sole member of the type II class of interferons. IFNγ is primarily produced by activated lymphocytes including T, B, NK cells, and ILCs. IFNγ exerts immunoregulatory, anti-proliferative, anti-viral, and proinflammatory activities and plays an important role in activation, growth, and differentiation of T and B lymphocytes, macrophages, NK cells and other non-hematopoietic cell types. Additionally, IFNγ induces the production of cytokines, Fc receptor, and adhesion molecules and up-regulates MHC class I and II antigen expression by antigen presenting cells during an immune response. IFNγ has also been shown to modulate macrophage effector functions, influence isotype switching and induce the secretion of immunoglobulins by B cells. IFNγ signals through the IFN gamma receptor which exists as a heterodimer composed of CD119 (IFN gamma receptor 1) and AF-1 (IFN gamma receptor 2). The IFNγ receptor is expressed ubiquitously on almost all cell types with the exception of mature erythrocytes. The XMG1.2 antibody is a neutralizing antibody.

InVivoPlus anti-mouse IFNγ Specifications

Isotype

Rat IgG1, κ

Recommended Isotype Control(s) InVivoPlus rat IgG1 isotype control, anti-horseradish peroxidase(BP0088)
Recommended InVivoPure Dilution Buffer InVivoPure pH 8.0T Dilution Buffer(IPT080)
Immunogen

Recombinant mouse IFNγ

Reported Applications
  • in vivo IFNγ neutralization
  • in vitro IFNγ neutralization
  • ELISPOT
  • Flow cytometry
  • Western blot
Endotoxin
  • <1EU/mg (<0.001EU/μg)
  • Determined by LAL gel clotting assay
Binding Validation

Determined by immunoblot

Purity
  • >95%
  • Determined by SDS-PAGE
Aggregation
  • <5%
  • Determined by DLS
Formulation
  • PBS + 0.01% Tween, pH 8.0
  • Contains no stabilizers or preservatives
Sterility

0.2 μM filtered

Production

Purified from tissue culture supernatant in an animal free facility

Purification

Protein G

Molecular Weight

150 kDa

Murine Pathogen Test Results
  • Mouse Norovirus: Negative
  • Mouse Parvovirus: Negative
  • Mouse Minute Virus: Negative
  • Mouse Hepatitis Virus: Negative
  • Reovirus Screen: Negative
  • Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis virus: Negative
  • Lactate Dehydrogenase-Elevating Virus: Negative
  • Mouse Rotavirus: Negative
  • Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis: Negative
  • Ectromelia/Mousepox Virus: Negative
  • Hantavirus: Negative
  • Polyoma Virus: Negative
  • Mouse Adenovirus: Negative
  • Sendai Virus: Negative
  • Mycoplasma Pulmonis: Negative
  • Pneumonia Virus of Mice: Negative
  • Mouse Cytomegalovirus: Negative
  • K Virus: Negative
RRID

AB_1107694

Storage

The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.

The InVivoPlus Difference

Our InVivoPlus™ antibodies feature all the great qualities of our InVivoMab™ antibodies.  The InVivoPlus™ versions of our products are structurally and functionally identical to the InVivoMab™ versions with the added benefit of additional QC measures. InVivoPlus™ antibodies are screened for murine pathogens using ultrasensitive qPCR, screened for protein aggregation via dynamic light scattering, feature advanced binding validation via flow cytometry, ELISA, and/or Western blot, and are guaranteed to contain less than 1 endotoxin unit per milligram. Our InVivoPlus™ line of antibodies are designed to exceed the strict demands and rigorous standards required for in vivo work at any research organization.

Application References

InVivoPlus anti-mouse IFN (Clone: XMG1.2)

Glasner, A., et al. (2018). "NKp46 Receptor-Mediated Interferon-gamma Production by Natural Killer Cells Increases Fibronectin 1 to Alter Tumor Architecture and Control Metastasis." Immunity 48(1): 107-119 e104. PubMed Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphoid cells, and their presence within human tumors correlates with better prognosis. However, the mechanisms by which NK cells control tumors in vivo are unclear. Here, we used reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) imaging in humans and in mice to visualize tumor architecture in vivo. We demonstrated that signaling via the NK cell receptor NKp46 (human) and Ncr1 (mouse) induced interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) secretion from intratumoral NK cells. NKp46- and Ncr1-mediated IFN-gamma production led to the increased expression of the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin 1 (FN1) in the tumors, which altered primary tumor architecture and resulted in decreased metastases formation. Injection of IFN-gamma into tumor-bearing mice or transgenic overexpression of Ncr1 in NK cells in mice resulted in decreased metastasis formation. Thus, we have defined a mechanism of NK cell-mediated control of metastases in vivo that may help develop NK cell-dependent cancer therapies.   Clever, D., et al. (2016). "Oxygen Sensing by T Cells Establishes an Immunologically Tolerant Metastatic Niche." Cell 166(5): 1117-1131 e1114. PubMed Cancer cells must evade immune responses at distant sites to establish metastases. The lung is a frequent site for metastasis. We hypothesized that lung-specific immunoregulatory mechanisms create an immunologically permissive environment for tumor colonization. We found that T-cell-intrinsic expression of the oxygen-sensing prolyl-hydroxylase (PHD) proteins is required to maintain local tolerance against innocuous antigens in the lung but powerfully licenses colonization by circulating tumor cells. PHD proteins limit pulmonary type helper (Th)-1 responses, promote CD4(+)-regulatory T (Treg) cell induction, and restrain CD8(+) T cell effector function. Tumor colonization is accompanied by PHD-protein-dependent induction of pulmonary Treg cells and suppression of IFN-gamma-dependent tumor clearance. T-cell-intrinsic deletion or pharmacological inhibition of PHD proteins limits tumor colonization of the lung and improves the efficacy of adoptive cell transfer immunotherapy. Collectively, PHD proteins function in T cells to coordinate distinct immunoregulatory programs within the lung that are permissive to cancer metastasis.   Cao, A. T., et al. (2015). "Interleukin (IL)-21 promotes intestinal IgA response to microbiota." Mucosal Immunol 8(5): 1072-1082. PubMed Commensal microbiota-specific T helper type 17 (Th17) cells are enriched in the intestines, which can convert into T follicular helper (Tfh) in Peyer's patches, and are crucial for production of intestinal immunoglobulin A (IgA) against microbiota; however, the role of Th17 and Tfh cytokines in regulating the mucosal IgA response to enteric microbiota is still not completely known. In this study, we found that intestinal IgA was impaired in mice deficient in interleukin (IL)-17 or IL-21 signaling. IL-21, but not IL-17, is able to augment B-cell differentiation to IgA(+) cells as mediated by transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1) and accelerate IgA class switch recombination (CSR). IL-21 and retinoic acid (RA) induce IgA(+) B-cell development and IgA production and drives autocrine TGFbeta1 production to initiate IgA CSR. Repletion of T-cell-deficient TCRbetaxdelta(-/-) mice with Th17 cells specific for commensal bacterial antigen increased the levels of IgA(+) B cells and IgA production in the intestine, which was blocked by neutralizing IL-21. Thus IL-21 functions to strongly augment IgA production under intestinal environment. Furthermore, IL-21 promotes intestinal B-cell homing through alpha4beta7 expression, alone or with TGFbeta and RA. Together, IL-21 from microbiota-specific Th17 and/or Tfh cells contributes to robust intestinal IgA levels by enhancing IgA(+) CSR, IgA production and B-cell trafficking into the intestine.   Choi, Y. S., et al. (2015). "LEF-1 and TCF-1 orchestrate TFH differentiation by regulating differentiation circuits upstream of the transcriptional repressor Bcl6." Nat Immunol 16(9): 980-990. PubMed Follicular helper T cells (TFH cells) are specialized effector CD4(+) T cells that help B cells develop germinal centers (GCs) and memory. However, the transcription factors that regulate the differentiation of TFH cells remain incompletely understood. Here we report that selective loss of Lef1 or Tcf7 (which encode the transcription factor LEF-1 or TCF-1, respectively) resulted in TFH cell defects, while deletion of both Lef1 and Tcf7 severely impaired the differentiation of TFH cells and the formation of GCs. Forced expression of LEF-1 enhanced TFH differentiation. LEF-1 and TCF-1 coordinated such differentiation by two general mechanisms. First, they established the responsiveness of naive CD4(+) T cells to TFH cell signals. Second, they promoted early TFH differentiation via the multipronged approach of sustaining expression of the cytokine receptors IL-6Ralpha and gp130, enhancing expression of the costimulatory receptor ICOS and promoting expression of the transcriptional repressor Bcl6.   Gu, A. D., et al. (2015). "A critical role for transcription factor Smad4 in T cell function that is independent of transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling." Immunity 42(1): 68-79. PubMed Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) suppresses T cell function to maintain self-tolerance and to promote tumor immune evasion. Yet how Smad4, a transcription factor component of TGF-beta signaling, regulates T cell function remains unclear. Here we have demonstrated an essential role for Smad4 in promoting T cell function during autoimmunity and anti-tumor immunity. Smad4 deletion rescued the lethal autoimmunity resulting from transforming growth factor-beta receptor (TGF-betaR) deletion and compromised T-cell-mediated tumor rejection. Although Smad4 was dispensable for T cell generation, homeostasis, and effector function, it was essential for T cell proliferation after activation in vitro and in vivo. The transcription factor Myc was identified to mediate Smad4-controlled T cell proliferation. This study thus reveals a requirement of Smad4 for T-cell-mediated autoimmunity and tumor rejection, which is beyond the current paradigm. It highlights a TGF-betaR-independent role for Smad4 in promoting T cell function, autoimmunity, and anti-tumor immunity.   Hou, L., et al. (2015). "The protease cathepsin L regulates Th17 cell differentiation." J Autoimmun. S0896-8411(15): 30024-X. PubMed Previously we reported that IL-17+ T cells, primarily IL-17+ gammadelta cells, are increased in mice lacking the protease inhibitor serpinB1 (serpinb1-/- mice). Here we show that serpinB1-deficient CD4 cells exhibit a cell-autonomous and selective deficiency in suppressing T helper 17 (Th17) cell differentiation. This suggested an opposing role for one or more protease in promoting Th17 differentiation. We found that several SerpinB1-inhibitable cysteine cathepsins are induced in Th17 cells, most prominently cathepsin L (catL); this was verified by peptidase assays, active site labeling and Western blots. Moreover, Th17 differentiation was suppressed by both broad cathepsin inhibitors and catL selective inhibitors. CatL is present in Th17 cells as single chain (SC)- and two-chain (TC)-forms. Inhibiting asparagine endopeptidase (AEP) blocked conversion of SC-catL to TC-catL and increased generation of serpinb1-/- Th17 cells, but not wild-type Th17 cells. These findings suggest that SC-catL is biologically active in promoting Th17 generation and is counter-regulated by serpinB1 and secondarily by AEP. Thus, in addition to regulation by cytokines and transcription factors, differentiation of CD4 cells to Th17 cells is actively regulated by a catL-serpinB1-AEP module. Targeting this protease regulatory module could be an approach to treating Th17 cell-driven autoimmune disorders.   Sell, S., et al. (2015). "Control of murine cytomegalovirus infection by gammadelta T cells." PLoS Pathog 11(2): e1004481. PubMed Infections with cytomegalovirus (CMV) can cause severe disease in immunosuppressed patients and infected newborns. Innate as well as cellular and humoral adaptive immune effector functions contribute to the control of CMV in immunocompetent individuals. None of the innate or adaptive immune functions are essential for virus control, however. Expansion of gammadelta T cells has been observed during human CMV (HCMV) infection in the fetus and in transplant patients with HCMV reactivation but the protective function of gammadelta T cells under these conditions remains unclear. Here we show for murine CMV (MCMV) infections that mice that lack CD8 and CD4 alphabeta-T cells as well as B lymphocytes can control a MCMV infection that is lethal in RAG-1(-/-) mice lacking any T- and B-cells. gammadelta T cells, isolated from infected mice can kill MCMV infected target cells in vitro and, importantly, provide long-term protection in infected RAG-1(-/-) mice after adoptive transfer. gammadelta T cells in MCMV infected hosts undergo a prominent and long-lasting phenotypic change most compatible with the view that the majority of the gammadelta T cell population persists in an effector/memory state even after resolution of the acute phase of the infection. A clonotypically focused Vgamma1 and Vgamma2 repertoire was observed at later stages of the infection in the organs where MCMV persists. These findings add gammadelta T cells as yet another protective component to the anti-CMV immune response. Our data provide clear evidence that gammadelta T cells can provide an effective control mechanism of acute CMV infections, particularly when conventional adaptive immune mechanisms are insufficient or absent, like in transplant patient or in the developing immune system in utero. The findings have implications in the stem cell transplant setting, as antigen recognition by gammadelta T cells is not MHC-restricted and dual reactivity against CMV and tumors has been described.   Zander, R. A., et al. (2015). "PD-1 Co-inhibitory and OX40 Co-stimulatory Crosstalk Regulates Helper T Cell Differentiation and Anti-Plasmodium Humoral Immunity." Cell Host Microbe 17(5): 628-641. PubMed The differentiation and protective capacity of Plasmodium-specific T cells are regulated by both positive and negative signals during malaria, but the molecular and cellular details remain poorly defined. Here we show that malaria patients and Plasmodium-infected rodents exhibit atypical expression of the co-stimulatory receptor OX40 on CD4 T cells and that therapeutic enhancement of OX40 signaling enhances helper CD4 T cell activity, humoral immunity, and parasite clearance in rodents. However, these beneficial effects of OX40 signaling are abrogated following coordinate blockade of PD-1 co-inhibitory pathways, which are also upregulated during malaria and associated with elevated parasitemia. Co-administration of biologics blocking PD-1 and promoting OX40 signaling induces excessive interferon-gamma that directly limits helper T cell-mediated support of humoral immunity and decreases parasite control. Our results show that targeting OX40 can enhance Plasmodium control and that crosstalk between co-inhibitory and co-stimulatory pathways in pathogen-specific CD4 T cells can impact pathogen clearance.   Bertin, S., et al. (2014). "The ion channel TRPV1 regulates the activation and proinflammatory properties of CD4(+) T cells." Nat Immunol 15(11): 1055-1063. PubMed TRPV1 is a Ca(2+)-permeable channel studied mostly as a pain receptor in sensory neurons. However, its role in other cell types is poorly understood. Here we found that TRPV1 was functionally expressed in CD4(+) T cells, where it acted as a non-store-operated Ca(2+) channel and contributed to T cell antigen receptor (TCR)-induced Ca(2+) influx, TCR signaling and T cell activation. In models of T cell-mediated colitis, TRPV1 promoted colitogenic T cell responses and intestinal inflammation. Furthermore, genetic and pharmacological inhibition of TRPV1 in human CD4(+) T cells recapitulated the phenotype of mouse Trpv1(-/-) CD4(+) T cells. Our findings suggest that inhibition of TRPV1 could represent a new therapeutic strategy for restraining proinflammatory T cell responses.   Deng, L., et al. (2014). "Irradiation and anti-PD-L1 treatment synergistically promote antitumor immunity in mice." J Clin Invest 124(2): 687-695. PubMed High-dose ionizing irradiation (IR) results in direct tumor cell death and augments tumor-specific immunity, which enhances tumor control both locally and distantly. Unfortunately, local relapses often occur following IR treatment, indicating that IR-induced responses are inadequate to maintain antitumor immunity. Therapeutic blockade of the T cell negative regulator programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1, also called B7-H1) can enhance T cell effector function when PD-L1 is expressed in chronically inflamed tissues and tumors. Here, we demonstrate that PD-L1 was upregulated in the tumor microenvironment after IR. Administration of anti-PD-L1 enhanced the efficacy of IR through a cytotoxic T cell-dependent mechanism. Concomitant with IR-mediated tumor regression, we observed that IR and anti-PD-L1 synergistically reduced the local accumulation of tumor-infiltrating myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), which suppress T cells and alter the tumor immune microenvironment. Furthermore, activation of cytotoxic T cells with combination therapy mediated the reduction of MDSCs in tumors through the cytotoxic actions of TNF. Our data provide evidence for a close interaction between IR, T cells, and the PD-L1/PD-1 axis and establish a basis for the rational design of combination therapy with immune modulators and radiotherapy.   Rabenstein, H., et al. (2014). "Differential kinetics of antigen dependency of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells." J Immunol 192(8): 3507-3517. PubMed Ag recognition via the TCR is necessary for the expansion of specific T cells that then contribute to adaptive immunity as effector and memory cells. Because CD4+ and CD8+ T cells differ in terms of their priming APCs and MHC ligands we compared their requirements of Ag persistence during their expansion phase side by side. Proliferation and effector differentiation of TCR transgenic and polyclonal mouse T cells were thus analyzed after transient and continuous TCR signals. Following equally strong stimulation, CD4+ T cell proliferation depended on prolonged Ag presence, whereas CD8+ T cells were able to divide and differentiate into effector cells despite discontinued Ag presentation. CD4+ T cell proliferation was neither affected by Th lineage or memory differentiation nor blocked by coinhibitory signals or missing inflammatory stimuli. Continued CD8+ T cell proliferation was truly independent of self-peptide/MHC-derived signals. The subset divergence was also illustrated by surprisingly broad transcriptional differences supporting a stronger propensity of CD8+ T cells to programmed expansion. These T cell data indicate an intrinsic difference between CD4+ and CD8+ T cells regarding the processing of TCR signals for proliferation. We also found that the presentation of a MHC class II-restricted peptide is more efficiently prolonged by dendritic cell activation in vivo than a class I bound one. In summary, our data demonstrate that CD4+ T cells require continuous stimulation for clonal expansion, whereas CD8+ T cells can divide following a much shorter TCR signal.   Uddin, M. N., et al. (2014). "TNF-alpha-dependent hematopoiesis following Bcl11b deletion in T cells restricts metastatic melanoma." J Immunol 192(4): 1946-1953. PubMed Using several tumor models, we demonstrate that mice deficient in Bcl11b in T cells, although having reduced numbers of T cells in the peripheral lymphoid organs, developed significantly less tumors compared with wild-type mice. Bcl11b(-/-) CD4(+) T cells, with elevated TNF-alpha levels, but not the Bcl11b(-/-) CD8(+) T cells, were required for the reduced tumor burden, as were NK1.1(+) cells, found in increased numbers in Bcl11b(F/F)/CD4-Cre mice. Among NK1.1(+) cells, the NK cell population was predominant in number and was the only population displaying elevated granzyme B levels and increased degranulation, although not increased proliferation. Although the number of myeloid-derived suppressor cells was increased in the lungs with metastatic tumors of Bcl11b(F/F)/CD4-Cre mice, their arginase-1 levels were severely reduced. The increase in NK cell and myeloid-derived suppressor cell numbers was associated with increased bone marrow and splenic hematopoiesis. Finally, the reduced tumor burden, increased numbers of NK cells in the lung, and increased hematopoiesis in Bcl11b(F/F)/CD4-Cre mice were all dependent on TNF-alpha. Moreover, TNF-alpha treatment of wild-type mice also reduced the tumor burden and increased hematopoiesis and the numbers and activity of NK cells in the lung. In vitro treatment with TNF-alpha of lineage-negative hematopoietic progenitors increased NK and myeloid differentiation, further supporting a role of TNF-alpha in promoting hematopoiesis. These studies reveal a novel role for TNF-alpha in the antitumor immune response, specifically in stimulating hematopoiesis and increasing the numbers and activity of NK cells.   Kugler, D. G., et al. (2013). "CD4+ T cells are trigger and target of the glucocorticoid response that prevents lethal immunopathology in toxoplasma infection." J Exp Med 210(10): 1919-1927. PubMed Synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs) are commonly used in the treatment of inflammatory diseases, but the role of endogenous GCs in the regulation of host-protective immune responses is poorly understood. Here we show that GCs are induced during acute Toxoplasma gondii infection and directly control the T cell response to the parasite. When infected with toxoplasma, mice that selectively lack GC receptor (GR) expression in T cells (GR(lck-Cre)) rapidly succumb to infection despite displaying parasite burdens indistinguishable from control animals and unaltered levels of the innate cytokines IL-12 and IL-27. Mortality in the GR(lck-Cre) mice was associated with immunopathology and hyperactive Th1 cell function as revealed by enhanced IFN-gamma and TNF production in vivo. Unexpectedly, these CD4(+) T lymphocytes also overexpressed IL-10. Importantly, CD4(+) T cell depletion in wild-type or GR(lck-Cre) mice led to ablation of the GC response to infection. Moreover, in toxoplasma-infected RAG(-/-) animals, adoptive transfer of CD4(+) T lymphocytes was required for GC induction. These findings establish a novel IL-10-independent immunomodulatory circuit in which CD4(+) T cells trigger a GC response that in turn dampens their own effector function. In the case of T. gondii infection, this self-regulatory pathway is critical for preventing collateral tissue damage and promoting host survival.   Simons, D. M., et al. (2013). "Autoreactive Th1 cells activate monocytes to support regional Th17 responses in inflammatory arthritis." J Immunol 190(7): 3134-3141. PubMed We have examined mechanisms underlying the formation of pathologic Th17 cells using a transgenic mouse model in which autoreactive CD4(+) T cells recognize influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) as a ubiquitously expressed self-Ag and induce inflammatory arthritis. The lymph nodes of arthritic mice contain elevated numbers of inflammatory monocytes (iMO) with an enhanced capacity to promote CD4(+) Th17 cell differentiation, and a regional inflammatory response develops in the paw-draining lymph nodes by an IL-17-dependent mechanism. The activation of these Th17-trophic iMO precedes arthritis development and occurs in the context of an autoreactive CD4(+) Th1 cell response. Adoptive transfer of HA-specific CD4(+) T cells into nonarthritic mice expressing HA as a self-Ag similarly led to the formation of Th1 cells and of iMO that could support Th17 cell formation, and, notably, the accumulation of these iMO in the lymph nodes was blocked by IFN-gamma neutralization. These studies show that autoreactive CD4(+) Th1 cells directed to a systemically distributed self-Ag can promote the development of a regional Th17 cell inflammatory response by driving the recruitment of Th17-trophic iMO to the lymph nodes.   Yu, X., et al. (2013). "A multifunctional chimeric chaperone serves as a novel immune modulator inducing therapeutic antitumor immunity." Cancer Res 73(7): 2093-2103. PubMed Converting the immunosuppressive tumor environment into one that is favorable to the induction of antitumor immunity is indispensable for effective cancer immunotherapy. Here, we strategically incorporate a pathogen (i.e., flagellin)-derived, NF-kappaB-stimulating "danger" signal into the large stress protein or chaperone Grp170 (HYOU1/ORP150) that was previously shown to facilitate antigen crosspresentation. This engineered chimeric molecule (i.e., Flagrp170) is capable of transporting tumor antigens and concurrently inducing functional activation of dendritic cells (DC). Intratumoral administration of adenoviruses expressing Flagrp170 induces a superior antitumor response against B16 melanoma and its distant lung metastasis compared with unmodified Grp170 and flagellin. The enhanced tumor destruction is accompanied with significantly increased tumor infiltration by CD8(+) cells as well as elevation of IFN-gamma and interleukin (IL)-12 levels in the tumor sites. In situ Ad.Flagrp170 therapy provokes systemic activation of CTLs that recognize several antigens naturally expressing in melanoma (e.g., gp100/PMEL and TRP2/DCT). The mechanistic studies using CD11c-DTR transgenic mice and Batf3-deficient mice reveal that CD8alpha(+) DCs are required for the improved T-cell crosspriming. Antibody neutralization assays show that IL-12 and IFN-gamma are essential for the Flagrp170-elicited antitumor response, which also involves CD8(+) T cells and natural killer cells. The therapeutic efficacy of Flagrp170 and its immunostimulating activity are also confirmed in mouse prostate cancer and colon carcinoma. Together, targeting the tumor microenvironment with this chimeric chaperone is highly effective in mobilizing or restoring antitumor immunity, supporting the potential therapeutic use of this novel immunomodulator in the treatment of metastatic diseases.   Mohr, E., et al. (2010). "IFN-{gamma} produced by CD8 T cells induces T-bet-dependent and -independent class switching in B cells in responses to alum-precipitated protein vaccine." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107(40): 17292-17297. PubMed Alum-precipitated protein (alum protein) vaccines elicit long-lasting neutralizing antibody responses that prevent bacterial exotoxins and viruses from entering cells. Typically, these vaccines induce CD4 T cells to become T helper 2 (Th2) cells that induce Ig class switching to IgG1. We now report that CD8 T cells also respond to alum proteins, proliferating extensively and producing IFN-gamma, a key Th1 cytokine. These findings led us to question whether adoptive transfer of antigen-specific CD8 T cells alters the characteristic CD4 Th2 response to alum proteins and the switching pattern in responding B cells. To this end, WT mice given transgenic ovalbumin (OVA)-specific CD4 (OTII) or CD8 (OTI) T cells, or both, were immunized with alum-precipitated OVA. Cotransfer of antigen-specific CD8 T cells skewed switching patterns in responding B cells from IgG1 to IgG2a and IgG2b. Blocking with anti-IFN-gamma antibody largely inhibited this altered B-cell switching pattern. The transcription factor T-bet is required in B cells for IFN-gamma-dependent switching to IgG2a. By contrast, we show that this transcription factor is dispensable in B cells both for IFN-gamma-induced switching to IgG2b and for inhibition of switching to IgG1. Thus, T-bet dependence identifies distinct transcriptional pathways in B cells that regulate IFN-gamma-induced switching to different IgG isotypes.   Quezada, S. A., et al. (2010). "Tumor-reactive CD4(+) T cells develop cytotoxic activity and eradicate large established melanoma after transfer into lymphopenic hosts." J Exp Med 207(3): 637-650. PubMed Adoptive transfer of large numbers of tumor-reactive CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) expanded and differentiated in vitro has shown promising clinical activity against cancer. However, such protocols are complicated by extensive ex vivo manipulations of tumor-reactive cells and have largely focused on CD8(+) CTLs, with much less emphasis on the role and contribution of CD4(+) T cells. Using a mouse model of advanced melanoma, we found that transfer of small numbers of naive tumor-reactive CD4(+) T cells into lymphopenic recipients induces substantial T cell expansion, differentiation, and regression of large established tumors without the need for in vitro manipulation. Surprisingly, CD4(+) T cells developed cytotoxic activity, and tumor rejection was dependent on class II-restricted recognition of tumors by tumor-reactive CD4(+) T cells. Furthermore, blockade of the coinhibitory receptor CTL-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) on the transferred CD4(+) T cells resulted in greater expansion of effector T cells, diminished accumulation of tumor-reactive regulatory T cells, and superior antitumor activity capable of inducing regression of spontaneous mouse melanoma. These findings suggest a novel potential therapeutic role for cytotoxic CD4(+) T cells and CTLA-4 blockade in cancer immunotherapy, and demonstrate the potential advantages of differentiating tumor-reactive CD4(+) cells in vivo over current protocols favoring in vitro expansion and differentiation.

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