InVivoMAb anti-mouse TIM-1 (CD365)
Foks, A. C., et al. (2016). "Blockade of Tim-1 and Tim-4 Enhances Atherosclerosis in Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Deficient Mice." Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 36(3): 456-465. PubMed
OBJECTIVE: T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (Tim) proteins are expressed by numerous immune cells, recognize phosphatidylserine on apoptotic cells, and function as costimulators or coinhibitors. Tim-1 is expressed by activated T cells but is also found on dendritic cells and B cells. Tim-4, present on macrophages and dendritic cells, plays a critical role in apoptotic cell clearance, regulates the number of phosphatidylserine-expressing activated T cells, and is genetically associated with low low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride levels. Because these functions of Tim-1 and Tim-4 could affect atherosclerosis, their modulation has potential therapeutic value in cardiovascular disease. APPROACH AND RESULTS: ldlr(-/-) mice were fed a high-fat diet for 4 weeks while being treated with control (rat immunoglobulin G1) or anti-Tim-1 (3D10) or -Tim-4 (21H12) monoclonal antibodies that block phosphatidylserine recognition and phagocytosis. Both anti-Tim-1 and anti-Tim-4 treatments enhanced atherosclerosis by 45% compared with controls by impairment of efferocytosis and increasing aortic CD4(+)T cells. Consistently, anti-Tim-4-treated mice showed increased percentages of activated T cells and late apoptotic cells in the circulation. Moreover, in vitro blockade of Tim-4 inhibited efferocytosis of oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced apoptotic macrophages. Although anti-Tim-4 treatment increased T helper cell (Th)1 and Th2 responses, anti-Tim-1 induced Th2 responses but dramatically reduced the percentage of regulatory T cells. Finally, combined blockade of Tim-1 and Tim-4 increased atherosclerotic lesion size by 59%. CONCLUSIONS: Blockade of Tim-4 aggravates atherosclerosis likely by prevention of phagocytosis of phosphatidylserine-expressing apoptotic cells and activated T cells by Tim-4-expressing cells, whereas Tim-1-associated effects on atherosclerosis are related to changes in Th1/Th2 balance and reduced circulating regulatory T cells.
Kim, H. Y., et al. (2013). "T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 deficiency eliminates airway hyperreactivity triggered by the recognition of airway cell death." J Allergy Clin Immunol 132(2): 414-425 e416. PubMed
BACKGROUND: Studies of asthma have been limited by a poor understanding of how nonallergic environmental exposures, such as air pollution and infection, are translated in the lung into inflammation and wheezing. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to understand the mechanism of nonallergic asthma that leads to airway hyperreactivity (AHR), a cardinal feature of asthma independent of adaptive immunity. METHOD: We examined mouse models of experimental asthma in which AHR was induced by respiratory syncytial virus infection or ozone exposure using mice deficient in T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM1/HAVCR1), an important asthma susceptibility gene. RESULTS: TIM1(-/-) mice did not have airways disease when infected with RSV or when repeatedly exposed to ozone, a major component of air pollution. On the other hand, the TIM1(-/-) mice had allergen-induced experimental asthma, as previously shown. The RSV- and ozone-induced pathways were blocked by treatment with caspase inhibitors, indicating an absolute requirement for programmed cell death and apoptosis. TIM-1-expressing, but not TIM-1-deficient, natural killer T cells responded to apoptotic airway epithelial cells by secreting cytokines, which mediated the development of AHR. CONCLUSION: We defined a novel pathway in which TIM-1, a receptor for phosphatidylserine expressed by apoptotic cells, drives the development of asthma by sensing and responding to injured and apoptotic airway epithelial cells.
Lee, H. H., et al. (2010). "Apoptotic cells activate NKT cells through T cell Ig-like mucin-like-1 resulting in airway hyperreactivity." J Immunol 185(9): 5225-5235. PubMed
T cell Ig-like mucin-like-1 (TIM-1) is an important asthma susceptibility gene, but the immunological mechanisms by which TIM-1 functions remain uncertain. TIM-1 is also a receptor for phosphatidylserine (PtdSer), an important marker of cells undergoing programmed cell death, or apoptosis. We now demonstrate that NKT cells constitutively express TIM-1 and become activated by apoptotic cells expressing PtdSer. TIM-1 recognition of PtdSer induced NKT cell activation, proliferation, and cytokine production. Moreover, the induction of apoptosis in airway epithelial cells activated pulmonary NKT cells and unexpectedly resulted in airway hyperreactivity, a cardinal feature of asthma, in an NKT cell-dependent and TIM-1-dependent fashion. These results suggest that TIM-1 serves as a pattern recognition receptor on NKT cells that senses PtdSer on apoptotic cells as a damage-associated molecular pattern. Furthermore, these results provide evidence for a novel innate pathway that results in airway hyperreactivity and may help to explain how TIM-1 and NKT cells regulate asthma.