About InVivoMAb anti-mouse TIGIT
The 1G9 monoclonal antibody reacts with mouse TIGIT (T cell immunoreceptor with Ig and ITIM domains). TIGIT is a 26 kDa, type I transmembrane protein and a member of the poliovirus receptor (PVR) family. TIGIT has been found to be expressed on follicular T helper cells in mice while in humans it's expressed by many T cell subsets including activated T cells, follicular T helper cells, memory T cells, and regulatory T cells as well as on NK cells. TIGIT can interact with certain members of the PVR and PVR-like families, including PVR, PVRL2, PVRL3, CD155, and CD112. TIGIT is thought to negatively regulate NK and T cell activation. Binding of TIGIT on T cells by dendritic cells results in their differentiation into a tolerogenic phenotype, with increased secretion of IL-10 and diminished production of IL-12. TIGIT knock-out mice are more susceptible to autoimmune disease.
InVivoMAb anti-mouse TIGIT Specifications
|Isotype||Mouse IgG1, κ|
|Recommended Isotype Control(s)|
|Recommended Dilution Buffer|
|Sterility||0.2 μM filtered|
|Production||Purified from tissue culture supernatant in an animal free facility|
|Molecular Weight||150 kDa|
|Storage||The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.|
InVivoMAb anti-mouse TIGIT
in vivo TIGIT stimulation
Schorer, M., et al. (2020). "TIGIT limits immune pathology during viral infections." Nat Commun 11(1): 1288. PubMed
Co-inhibitory pathways have a fundamental function in regulating T cell responses and control the balance between promoting efficient effector functions and restricting immune pathology. The TIGIT pathway has been implicated in promoting T cell dysfunction in chronic viral infection. Importantly, TIGIT signaling is functionally linked to IL-10 expression, which has an effect on both virus control and maintenance of tissue homeostasis. However, whether TIGIT has a function in viral persistence or limiting tissue pathology is unclear. Here we report that TIGIT modulation effectively alters the phenotype and cytokine profile of T cells during influenza and chronic LCMV infection, but does not affect virus control in vivo. Instead, TIGIT has an important effect in limiting immune pathology in peripheral organs by inducing IL-10. Our data therefore identify a function of TIGIT in limiting immune pathology that is independent of viral clearance.
in vivo TIGIT stimulation
Dixon, K. O., et al. (2018). "Functional Anti-TIGIT Antibodies Regulate Development of Autoimmunity and Antitumor Immunity." J Immunol 200(8): 3000-3007. PubMed
Coinhibitory receptors, such as CTLA-4 and PD-1, play a critical role in maintaining immune homeostasis by dampening T cell responses. Recently, they have gained attention as therapeutic targets in chronic disease settings where their dysregulated expression contributes to suppressed immune responses. The novel coinhibitory receptor TIGIT (T cell Ig and ITIM domain) has been shown to play an important role in modulating immune responses in the context of autoimmunity and cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms by which TIGIT modulates immune responses are still insufficiently understood. We have generated a panel of monoclonal anti-mouse TIGIT Abs that show functional properties in mice in vivo and can serve as important tools to study the underlying mechanisms of TIGIT function. We have identified agonistic as well as blocking anti-TIGIT Ab clones that are capable of modulating T cell responses in vivo. Administration of either agonist or blocking anti-TIGIT Abs modulated autoimmune disease severity whereas administration of blocking anti-TIGIT Abs synergized with anti-PD-1 Abs to affect partial or even complete tumor regression. The Abs presented in this study can thus serve as important tools for detailed analysis of TIGIT function in different disease settings and the knowledge gained will provide valuable insight for the development of novel therapeutic approaches targeting TIGIT.
Burton, B. R., et al. (2014). “Sequential transcriptional changes dictate safe and effective antigen-specific immunotherapy.” Nat Commun 5: 4741. PubMed
Antigen-specific immunotherapy combats autoimmunity or allergy by reinstating immunological tolerance to target antigens without compromising immune function. Optimization of dosing strategy is critical for effective modulation of pathogenic CD4(+) T-cell activity. Here we report that dose escalation is imperative for safe, subcutaneous delivery of the high self-antigen doses required for effective tolerance induction and elicits anergic, interleukin (IL)-10-secreting regulatory CD4(+) T cells. Analysis of the CD4(+) T-cell transcriptome, at consecutive stages of escalating dose immunotherapy, reveals progressive suppression of transcripts positively regulating inflammatory effector function and repression of cell cycle pathways. We identify transcription factors, c-Maf and NFIL3, and negative co-stimulatory molecules, LAG-3, TIGIT, PD-1 and TIM-3, which characterize this regulatory CD4(+) T-cell population and whose expression correlates with the immunoregulatory cytokine IL-10. These results provide a rationale for dose escalation in T-cell-directed immunotherapy and reveal novel immunological and transcriptional signatures as surrogate markers of successful immunotherapy.
Chan, C. J., et al. (2014). “The receptors CD96 and CD226 oppose each other in the regulation of natural killer cell functions.” Nat Immunol 15(5): 431-438. PubMed
CD96, CD226 (DNAM-1) and TIGIT belong to an emerging family of receptors that interact with nectin and nectin-like proteins. CD226 activates natural killer (NK) cell-mediated cytotoxicity, whereas TIGIT reportedly counterbalances CD226. In contrast, the role of CD96, which shares the ligand CD155 with CD226 and TIGIT, has remained unclear. In this study we found that CD96 competed with CD226 for CD155 binding and limited NK cell function by direct inhibition. As a result, Cd96(-/-) mice displayed hyperinflammatory responses to the bacterial product lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and resistance to carcinogenesis and experimental lung metastases. Our data provide the first description, to our knowledge, of the ability of CD96 to negatively control cytokine responses by NK cells. Blocking CD96 may have applications in pathologies in which NK cells are important.
Foks, A. C., et al. (2013). “Agonistic anti-TIGIT treatment inhibits T cell responses in LDLr deficient mice without affecting atherosclerotic lesion development.” PLoS One 8(12): e83134. PubMed
OBJECTIVE: Co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory molecules are mainly expressed on T cells and antigen presenting cells and strongly orchestrate adaptive immune responses. Whereas co-stimulatory molecules enhance immune responses, signaling via co-inhibitory molecules dampens the immune system, thereby showing great therapeutic potential to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Signaling via co-inhibitory T cell immunoglobulin and ITIM domain (TIGIT) directly inhibits T cell activation and proliferation, and therefore represents a novel therapeutic candidate to specifically dampen pro-atherogenic T cell reactivity. In the present study, we used an agonistic anti-TIGIT antibody to determine the effect of excessive TIGIT-signaling on atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: TIGIT was upregulated on CD4(+) T cells isolated from mice fed a Western-type diet in comparison with mice fed a chow diet. Agonistic anti-TIGIT suppressed T cell activation and proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. However, agonistic anti-TIGIT treatment of LDLr(-/-) mice fed a Western-type diet for 4 or 8 weeks did not affect atherosclerotic lesion development in comparison with PBS and Armenian Hamster IgG treatment. Furthermore, elevated percentages of dendritic cells were observed in the blood and spleen of agonistic anti-TIGIT-treated mice. Additionally, these cells showed an increased activation status but decreased IL-10 production. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the inhibition of splenic T cell responses, agonistic anti-TIGIT treatment does not affect initial atherosclerosis development, possibly due to increased activity of dendritic cells.
Joller, N., et al. (2011). “Cutting edge: TIGIT has T cell-intrinsic inhibitory functions.” J Immunol 186(3): 1338-1342. PubMed
Costimulatory molecules regulate the functional outcome of T cell activation, and disturbance of the balance between activating and inhibitory signals results in increased susceptibility to infection or the induction of autoimmunity. Similar to the well-characterized CD28/CTLA-4 costimulatory pathway, a newly emerging pathway consisting of CD226 and T cell Ig and ITIM domain (TIGIT) has been associated with susceptibility to multiple autoimmune diseases. In this study, we examined the role of the putative coinhibitory molecule TIGIT and show that loss of TIGIT in mice results in hyperproliferative T cell responses and increased susceptibility to autoimmunity. TIGIT is thought to indirectly inhibit T cell responses by the induction of tolerogenic dendritic cells. By generating an agonistic anti-TIGIT Ab, we demonstrate that TIGIT can inhibit T cell responses directly independent of APCs. Microarray analysis of T cells stimulated with agonistic anti-TIGIT Ab revealed that TIGIT can act directly on T cells by attenuating TCR-driven activation signals.