About InVivoMAb anti-mouse CD31 (PECAM-1)
The 390 monoclonal antibody reacts with mouse CD31, also known as PECAM-1 (platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule). CD31 is a 130-140 kDa glycoprotein and member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. CD31 is expressed constitutively on the surface of adult and embryonic endothelial cells and is weakly expressed on platelets, granulocytes, monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells, and T and B cell subsets. CD31 mediates homophilic and heterophilic cell-cell adhesion and is critical for cell-cell interactions. Ligands for CD31 are reported as CD38 and vitronectin receptor (αvβ3 integrin, CD51/CD61). The 390 antibody has been shown to inhibit in vivo functions mediated by CD31.
InVivoMAb anti-mouse CD31 (PECAM-1) Specifications
|Isotype||Rat IgG2a, κ|
|Recommended Isotype Control(s)|
|Recommended Dilution Buffer|
|Immunogen||C3H/HeJ mouse hematopoietic progenitor cell line 3|
|Sterility||0.2 μM filtered|
|Production||Purified from tissue culture supernatant in an animal free facility|
|Molecular Weight||150 kDa|
|Storage||The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.|
InVivoMAb anti-mouse CD31 (PECAM-1)
Chojnacki, A., et al. (2019). "Intravital imaging allows real-time characterization of tissue resident eosinophils." Commun Biol 2: 181. PubMed
Eosinophils are core components of the immune system, yet tools are lacking to directly observe eosinophils in action in vivo. To better understand the role of tissue resident eosinophils, we used eosinophil-specific CRE (eoCRE) mice to create GFP and tdTomato reporters. We then employed intravital microscopy to examine the dynamic behaviour of eosinophils in the healthy GI tract, mesentery, liver, lymph node, skin and lung. Given the role of eosinophils in allergic airway diseases, we also examined eosinophils in the lung following ovalbumin sensitization and challenge. We were able to monitor and quantify eosinophilic behaviours including patrolling, crawling, clustering, tissue distribution and interactions with other leukocytes. Thus, these reporter mice allow eosinophils to be examined in real-time in living animals, paving the way to further understanding the roles eosinophils play in both health and disease.
Cheung, K., et al. (2015). "CD31 signals confer immune privilege to the vascular endothelium." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 112(43): E5815-5824. PubMed
Constitutive resistance to cell death induced by inflammatory stimuli activating the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis is a key feature of vascular endothelial cells (ECs). Although this property is central to the maintenance of the endothelial barrier during inflammation, the molecular mechanisms of EC protection from cell-extrinsic, proapoptotic stimuli have not been investigated. We show that the Ig-family member CD31, which is expressed by endothelial but not epithelial cells, is necessary to prevent EC death induced by TNF-alpha and cytotoxic T lymphocytes in vitro. Combined quantitative RT-PCR array and biochemical analysis show that, upon the engagement of the TNF receptor with TNF-alpha on ECs, CD31 becomes activated and, in turn, counteracts the proapoptotic transcriptional program induced by TNF-alpha via activation of the Erk/Akt pathway. Specifically, Akt activation by CD31 signals prevents the localization of the forkhead transcription factor FoxO3 to the nucleus, thus inhibiting transcription of the proapoptotic genes CD95/Fas and caspase 7 and de-repressing the expression of the antiapoptotic gene cFlar. Both CD31 intracellular immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs are required for its prosurvival function. In vivo, CD31 gene transfer is sufficient to recapitulate the cytoprotective mechanisms in CD31(-) pancreatic beta cells, which become resistant to immune-mediated rejection when grafted in fully allogeneic recipients.
Greineder, C. F., et al. (2013). "Vascular immunotargeting to endothelial determinant ICAM-1 enables optimal partnering of recombinant scFv-thrombomodulin fusion with endogenous cofactor." PLoS One 8(11): e80110. PubMed
The use of targeted therapeutics to replenish pathologically deficient proteins on the luminal endothelial membrane has the potential to revolutionize emergency and cardiovascular medicine. Untargeted recombinant proteins, like activated protein C (APC) and thrombomodulin (TM), have demonstrated beneficial effects in acute vascular disorders, but have failed to have a major impact on clinical care. We recently reported that TM fused with an scFv antibody fragment to platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) exerts therapeutic effects superior to untargeted TM. PECAM-1 is localized to cell-cell junctions, however, whereas the endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR), the key co-factor of TM/APC, is exposed in the apical membrane. Here we tested whether anchoring TM to the intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) favors scFv/TM collaboration with EPCR. Indeed: i) endothelial targeting scFv/TM to ICAM-1 provides ~15-fold greater activation of protein C than its PECAM-targeted counterpart; ii) blocking EPCR reduces protein C activation by scFv/TM anchored to endothelial ICAM-1, but not PECAM-1; and iii) anti-ICAM scFv/TM fusion provides more profound anti-inflammatory effects than anti-PECAM scFv/TM in a mouse model of acute lung injury. These findings, obtained using new translational constructs, emphasize the importance of targeting protein therapeutics to the proper surface determinant, in order to optimize their microenvironment and beneficial effects.
in vivo CD31 blocking
DeLisser, H. M., et al. (1997). "Involvement of endothelial PECAM-1/CD31 in angiogenesis." Am J Pathol 151(3): 671-677. PubMed
The adhesive interactions of endothelial cells with each other and the adhesion receptors that mediate these interactions are probably of fundamental importance to the process of angiogenesis. We therefore studied the effect of inhibiting the function of the endothelial cell-cell adhesion molecule, PECAM-1/ CD31, in rat and murine models of angiogenesis. A polyclonal antibody to human PECAM-1, which cross-reacts with rat PECAM-1, was found to block in vitro tube formation by rat capillary endothelial cells and cytokine-induced rat corneal neovascularization. In mice, two monoclonal antibodies against murine PECAM-1 prevented vessel growth into subcutaneously implanted gels supplemented with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Taken together these findings provide evidence that PECAM-1 is involved in angiogenesis and suggest that the interactions of endothelial cell-cell adhesion molecules are important in the formation of new vessels.
Baldwin, H. S., et al. (1994). "Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1/CD31): alternatively spliced, functionally distinct isoforms expressed during mammalian cardiovascular development." Development 120(9): 2539-2553. PubMed
The establishment of the cardiovascular system represents an early, critical event essential for normal embryonic development. An important component of vascular ontogeny is the differentiation and development of the endothelial and endocardial cell populations. This involves, at least in part, the expression and function of specific cell surface receptors required to mediate cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1, CD31) may well serve such a function. It is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily expressed by the entire vascular endothelium in the adult. It is capable of mediating adhesion by a heterophilic mechanism requiring glycosaminoglycans, as well as by a homophilic, glycosaminoglycan independent, mechanism. It has been shown to regulate the expression of other adhesion molecules on naive T cells. This report documents by RT-PCR and immunohistochemical analysis the expression of PECAM-1 during early post implantation mouse embryo development. PECAM-1 was expressed by early endothelial precursors first within the yolk sac and subsequently within the embryo itself. Interestingly, embryonic PECAM-1 was expressed as multiple isoforms in which one or more clusters of polypeptides were missing from the cytoplasmic domain. The sequence and location of the deleted polypeptides corresponded to exons found in the human PECAM-1 gene. The alternatively spliced isoforms were capable of mediating cell-cell adhesion when transfected into L-cells. The isoforms differed, however, in their sensitivity to a panel of anti-PECAM-1 monoclonal antibodies. These data suggest that changes in the cytoplasmic domain of PECAM-1 may affect its function during cardiovascular development, and are consistent with our earlier report that systematic truncation of the cytoplasmic domain of human PECAM-1 resulted in changes in its ligand specificity, divalent cation and glycosaminoglycan dependence, as well as its susceptibility to adhesion blocking monoclonal antibodies. This is the first report of naturally occurring alternatively spliced forms of PECAM-1 having possible functional implications.