InVivoMAb anti-mouse CD20 (Clone: AISB12)
Ahmed, K. A., et al. (2012). "Direct in vivo evidence of CD4+ T cell requirement for CTL response and memory via pMHC-I targeting and CD40L signaling." J Leukoc Biol 92(2): 289-300. PubMed
CD4(+) T cell help contributes critically to DC-induced CD8(+) CTL immunity. However, precisely how these three cell populations interact and how CD4(+) T cell signals are delivered to CD8(+) T cells in vivo have been unclear. In this study, we developed a novel, two-step approach, wherein CD4(+) T cells and antigen-presenting DCs productively engaged one another in vivo in the absence of cognate CD8(+) T cells, after which, we selectively depleted the previously engaged CD4(+) T cells or DCs before allowing interactions of either population alone with naive CD8(+) T cells. This protocol thus allows us to clearly document the importance of CD4(+) T-licensed DCs and DC-primed CD4(+) T cells in CTL immunity. Here, we provide direct in vivo evidence that primed CD4(+) T cells or licensed DCs can stimulate CTL response and memory, independent of DC-CD4(+) T cell clusters. Our results suggest that primed CD4(+) T cells with acquired pMHC-I from DCs represent crucial "immune intermediates" for rapid induction of CTL responses and for functional memory via CD40L signaling. Importantly, intravital, two-photon microscopy elegantly provide unequivocal in vivo evidence for direct CD4-CD8(+) T cell interactions via pMHC-I engagement. This study corroborates the coexistence of direct and indirect mechanisms of T cell help for a CTL response in noninflammatory situations. These data suggest a new "dynamic model of three-cell interactions" for CTL immunity derived from stimulation by dissociated, licensed DCs, primed CD4(+) T cells, and DC-CD4(+) T cell clusters and may have significant implications for autoimmunity and vaccine design.
Qian, J., et al. (2012). "Active vaccination with Dickkopf-1 induces protective and therapeutic antitumor immunity in murine multiple myeloma." Blood 119(1): 161-169. PubMed
Dickkopf-1 (DKK1), broadly expressed in myeloma cells but highly restricted in normal tissues, together with its functional roles as an osteoblast formation inhibitor, may be an ideal target for immunotherapy in myeloma. Our previous studies have shown that DKK1 (peptide)-specific CTLs can effectively lyse primary myeloma cells in vitro. The goal of this study was to examine whether DKK1 can be used as a tumor vaccine to elicit DKK1-specific immunity that can control myeloma growth or even eradicate established myeloma in vivo. We used DKK1-DNA vaccine in the murine MOPC-21 myeloma model, and the results clearly showed that active vaccination using the DKK1 vaccine not only was able to protect mice from developing myeloma, but it was also therapeutic against established myeloma. Furthermore, the addition of CpG as an adjuvant, or injection of B7H1-blocking or OX40-agonist Abs, further enhanced the therapeutic effects of the vaccine. Mechanistic studies revealed that DKK1 vaccine elicited a strong DKK1- and tumor-specific CD4+ and CD8+ immune responses, and treatment with B7H1 or OX40 Abs significantly reduced the numbers of IL-10-expressing and Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in vaccinated mice. Thus, our studies provide strong rationale for targeting DKK1 for immunotherapy of myeloma patients.
Mishima, Y., et al. (2010). "Decreased production of interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-beta in Toll-like receptor-activated intestinal B cells in SAMP1/Yit mice." Immunology 131(4): 473-487. PubMed
A unique subset of B cells expressing interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) plays an essential role in preventing inflammation and autoimmunity. We investigated the presence of this cell subset in intestines and its role in the pathogenesis of ileitis using SAMP1/Yit and age-matched control AKR/J mice. Mononuclear cells were isolated from mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and the expressions of B220, CD1d, CD5, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR9 in isolated cells were analysed. Purified B cells were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or CpG-DNA, then IL-10 and TGF-beta(1) expressions were examined by enzyme immunoassay and flow cytometry. Production of IL-1beta by TLR-mediated macrophages co-cultured with or without purified MLN B cells from SAMP1/Yit and AKR/J mice was evaluated. In addition, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production in intestinal T cells co-cultured with MLN B cells were also assessed in SAMP1/Yit and AKR/J strains. The production levels of IL-10 and TGF-beta(1) stimulated by LPS and CpG-DNA were significantly lower in B cells separated from MLNs from the SAMP1/Yit strain. B cells expressing IL-10 and TGF-beta(1) were mainly located in a population characterized by the cell surface marker CD1d(+) . Interleukin-1beta production by TLR-activated macrophages co-cultured with MLN B cells from SAMP1/Yit mice was significantly higher than that of those from AKR/J mice. Interestingly, IFN-gamma production by T cells was noted only when they were co-cultured with SAMP1/Yit but not the AKR/J B cells. These results are the first to show that disorders of regulatory B-cell function under innate immune activation may cause disease pathogenesis in a murine model of Crohn's disease.