InVivoMAb anti-mouse c-Kit (CD117)

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ACK2 BE0293InVivoMAb Antibodies

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About InVivoMAb anti-mouse c-Kit (CD117)

The ACK2 monoclonal antibody reacts with mouse c-Kit also known as CD117, Steel factor receptor, stem cell factor receptor, and mast cell growth factor. c-Kit is a 145 kDa transmembrane tyrosine kinase and an immunoglobulin superfamily member. c-Kit is expressed on hematopoietic progenitor cells, mast cells, and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. The interaction of the c-Kit receptor and its ligand stem cell factor (SCF), promotes the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells. The ACK2 antibody has been reported to deplete c-Kit+ cells, including mast cells, when administered in vivo and neutralize c-Kit+ signaling when used in vitro. This antibody is reported to cross-react with rat c-Kit.

InVivoMAb anti-mouse c-Kit (CD117) Specifications

Isotype Rat IgG2b
Immunogen IL-3-dependent mast cells
Reported Applications
  • in vivo mast cell depletion
  • in vivo c-Kit+ cell depletion
  • in vitro c-Kit neutralization
  • Immunoprecipitation
  • Flow cytometry
Formulation
  • PBS, pH 7.0
  • Contains no stabilizers or preservatives
Endotoxin
  • <2EU/mg (<0.002EU/μg)
  • Determined by LAL gel clotting assay
Purity
  • >95%
  • Determined by SDS-PAGE
Sterility 0.2 μM filtered
Production Purified from tissue culture supernatant in an animal free facility
Purification Protein G
Storage The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.

Application References

InVivoMAb anti-mouse c-Kit (CD117)

  • in vitro c-Kit neutralization

Kuribayashi, W., et al. (2016). “Impact of the SCF signaling pathway on leukemia stem cell-mediated ATL initiation and progression in an HBZ transgenic mouse model.” Oncotarget 7(32): 51027-51043. PubMed

Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is a malignant disease caused by human T-lymphotropic virus type 1. In aggressive ATL, the response to chemotherapy is extremely poor. We hypothesized that this poor response is due to the existence of chemotherapy-resistant cells, such as leukemic stem cells. Previously, we successfully identified an ATL stem cell (ATLSC) candidate as the c-kit+/CD38-/CD71- cells in an ATL mouse model using Tax transgenic mice. Here, with a new ATL mouse model using HBZ-transgenic mice, we further discovered that the functional ATLSC candidate, which commonly expresses c-kit, is drug-resistant and has the ability to initiate tumors and reconstitute lymphomatous cells. We characterized the ATLSCs as c-kit+/CD4-/CD8- cells and found that they have a similar gene expression profile as T cell progenitors. Additionally, we found that AP-1 gene family members, including Junb, Jund, and Fosb, were up-regulated in the ATLSC fraction. The results of an in vitro assay showed that ATLSCs cultured with cytokines known to promote stem cell expansion, such as stem cell factor (SCF), showed highly proliferative activity and maintained their stem cell fraction. Inhibition of c-kit-SCF signaling with the neutralizing antibody ACK2 affected ATLSC self-renewal and proliferation. Experiments in Sl/Sld mice, which have a mutation in the membrane-bound c-kit ligand, found that ATL development was completely blocked in these mice. These results clearly suggest that the c-kit-SCF signal plays a key role in ATLSC self-renewal and in ATL initiation and disease progression.

  • in vivo mast cell depletion

Hewitson, J. P., et al. (2015). “Concerted activity of IgG1 antibodies and IL-4/IL-25-dependent effector cells trap helminth larvae in the tissues following vaccination with defined secreted antigens, providing sterile immunity to challenge infection.” PLoS Pathog 11(3): e1004676. PubMed

Over 25% of the world’s population are infected with helminth parasites, the majority of which colonise the gastrointestinal tract. However, no vaccine is yet available for human use, and mechanisms of protective immunity remain unclear. In the mouse model of Heligmosomoides polygyrus infection, vaccination with excretory-secretory (HES) antigens from adult parasites elicits sterilising immunity. Notably, three purified HES antigens (VAL-1, -2 and -3) are sufficient for effective vaccination. Protection is fully dependent upon specific IgG1 antibodies, but passive transfer confers only partial immunity to infection, indicating that cellular components are also required. Moreover, immune mice show greater cellular infiltration associated with trapping of larvae in the gut wall prior to their maturation. Intra-vital imaging of infected intestinal tissue revealed a four-fold increase in extravasation by LysM+GFP+ myeloid cells in vaccinated mice, and the massing of these cells around immature larvae. Mice deficient in FcRgamma chain or C3 complement component remain fully immune, suggesting that in the presence of antibodies that directly neutralise parasite molecules, the myeloid compartment may attack larvae more quickly and effectively. Immunity to challenge infection was compromised in IL-4Ralpha- and IL-25-deficient mice, despite levels of specific antibody comparable to immune wild-type controls, while deficiencies in basophils, eosinophils or mast cells or CCR2-dependent inflammatory monocytes did not diminish immunity. Finally, we identify a suite of previously uncharacterised heat-labile vaccine antigens with homologs in human and veterinary parasites that together promote full immunity. Taken together, these data indicate that vaccine-induced immunity to intestinal helminths involves IgG1 antibodies directed against secreted proteins acting in concert with IL-25-dependent Type 2 myeloid effector populations.

  • in vivo mast cell depletion

Kim, I. K., et al. (2015). “Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor-related protein co-stimulation facilitates tumor regression by inducing IL-9-producing helper T cells.” Nat Med 21(9): 1010-1017. PubMed

T cell stimulation via glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-related protein (GITR) elicits antitumor activity in various tumor models; however, the underlying mechanism of action remains unclear. Here we demonstrate a crucial role for interleukin (IL)-9 in antitumor immunity generated by the GITR agonistic antibody DTA-1. IL-4 receptor knockout (Il4ra(-/-)) mice, which have reduced expression of IL-9, were resistant to tumor growth inhibition by DTA-1. Notably, neutralization of IL-9 considerably impaired tumor rejection induced by DTA-1. In particular, DTA-1-induced IL-9 promoted tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses by enhancing the function of dendritic cells in vivo. Furthermore, GITR signaling enhanced the differentiation of IL-9-producing CD4(+) T-helper (TH9) cells in a TNFR-associated factor 6 (TRAF6)- and NF-kappaB-dependent manner and inhibited the generation of induced regulatory T cells in vitro. Our findings demonstrate that GITR co-stimulation mediates antitumor immunity by promoting TH9 cell differentiation and enhancing CTL responses and thus provide a mechanism of action for GITR agonist-mediated cancer immunotherapies.

  • in vivo c-Kit+ cell depletion

Louvet, C., et al. (2008). “Tyrosine kinase inhibitors reverse type 1 diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105(48): 18895-18900. PubMed

The recent development of small-molecule tyrosine kinase (TK) inhibitors offers increasing opportunities for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. In this study, we investigated the potential of this new class of drugs to treat and cure type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the NOD mouse. Treatment of prediabetic and new onset diabetic mice with imatinib (Gleevec) prevented and reversed T1D. Similar results were observed with sunitinib (Sutent), an additional approved multikinase inhibitor, suggesting that the primary target of imatinib, c-Abl, was not essential in blocking disease in this model. Additional studies with another TK inhibitor, PLX647 (targeting c-Kit and c-Fms) or an anti-c-Kit mAb showed only marginal efficacy whereas a soluble form of platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), PDGFRbetaIg, rapidly reversed diabetes. These findings strongly suggest that inhibition of PDGFR is critical to reverse diabetes and highlight a crucial role of inflammation in the development of T1D. These conclusions were supported by the finding that the adaptive immune system was not significantly affected by imatinib treatment. Finally, and most significantly, imatinib treatment led to durable remission after discontinuation of therapy at 10 weeks in a majority of mice. Thus, long-term efficacy and tolerance is likely to depend on inhibiting a combination of tyrosine kinases supporting the use of selective kinase inhibitors as a new, potentially very attractive approach for the treatment of T1D.

  • in vivo c-Kit+ cell depletion

Czechowicz, A., et al. (2007). “Efficient transplantation via antibody-based clearance of hematopoietic stem cell niches.” Science 318(5854): 1296-1299. PubMed

98% of endogenous HSCs in immunodeficient mice. Subsequent transplantation of these mice with donor HSCs led to chimerism levels of up to 90%. Extrapolation of these methods to humans may enable mild but effective conditioning regimens for transplantation.”}” data-sheets-userformat=”{“2″:14851,”3”:{“1″:0},”4”:{“1″:2,”2″:16777215},”12″:0,”14”:{“1″:2,”2″:1521491},”15″:”Roboto, sans-serif”,”16″:12}”>Upon intravenous transplantation, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can home to specialized niches, yet most HSCs fail to engraft unless recipients are subjected to toxic preconditioning. We provide evidence that, aside from immune barriers, donor HSC engraftment is restricted by occupancy of appropriate niches by host HSCs. Administration of ACK2, an antibody that blocks c-kit function, led to the transient removal of >98% of endogenous HSCs in immunodeficient mice. Subsequent transplantation of these mice with donor HSCs led to chimerism levels of up to 90%. Extrapolation of these methods to humans may enable mild but effective conditioning regimens for transplantation.

  • Flow cytometry

Umland, O., et al. (2007). “The blood contains multiple distinct progenitor populations with clonogenic B and T lineage potential.” J Immunol 178(7): 4147-4152. PubMed

The thymus is seeded by bone marrow-derived progenitors that circulate in the blood. Multiple cell types can be found in the thymus early after i.v. administration or in steady state, but most fail to satisfy the known characteristics of true T progenitors. Cells that do conform to classical definitions retain multilineage potential, but surprisingly, cannot make B cells. Because acquisition of the T lineage fate among noncommitted progenitors is a lengthy process, the absence of B cell potential in early thymocytes suggests that B and T lineages diverge prethymically. To test this suggestion, we screened numerous presumptive progenitor populations for T cell growth and differentiation potential, as well as for clonogenic T or B cell development. We find that blood and marrow each contain multiple distinct subsets that display growth and differentiation potential consistent with being canonical T progenitors. Assessment of clonogenic potential further shows that although all blood and marrow populations have high T cell cloning potential, no T/non-B cells are apparent. These data suggest that either true thymic reconstitution potential derives from a small T/non-B cell subset of one of these populations, or that most of the cells defined as canonical progenitors within the thymus do not, in fact, reside in the mainstream of T progenitor differentiation.

  • in vitro c-Kit neutralization

Kim, H. M., et al. (1998). “Morphological alterations in rat peritoneal mast cells by stem cell factor.” Immunology 94(2): 242-246. PubMed

Stem cell factor (SCF) stimulates mast cell adhesion and, because SCF is produced normally in tissues, it may be a major factor responsible for the adhesion of mast cells to connective tissue matrix. We found that the morphology of rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC) altered after the addition of recombinant murine SCF (rmSCF) in vitro. The ability of rmSCF to enhance morphological alteration was dose dependent and completely abolished by anti-c-kit ACK2 monoclonal antibody. Exposure of RPMC to transforming growth factor-beta 1, wortmannin, genistein, herbimycin A, staurosporine, indomethacin and cytochalasin D before the addition of rmSCF antagonized rmSCF-induced morphological alteration. However, nordihydroguiaretic acid had no effect. Many RPMC appeared to respond also to nerve growth factor (NGF) but the total number of cells with altered morphology was much greater when the culture was stimulated by rmSCF than by NGF. We suggest that morphological alterations of mast cells by rmSCF is an important step for the participation in adhesion to tissue under resident physiological conditions.

  • Immunoprecipitation

Furitsu, T., et al. (1993). “Identification of mutations in the coding sequence of the proto-oncogene c-kit in a human mast cell leukemia cell line causing ligand-independent activation of c-kit product.” J Clin Invest 92(4): 1736-1744. PubMed

The c-kit proto-oncogene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase. Binding of c-kit ligand, stem cell factor (SCF) to c-kit receptor (c-kitR) is known to activate c-kitR tyrosine kinase, thereby leading to autophosphorylation of c-kitR on tyrosine and to association of c-kitR with substrates such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). In a human mast cell leukemia cell line HMC-1, c-kitR was found to be constitutively phosphorylated on tyrosine, activated, and associated with PI3K without the addition of SCF. The expression of SCF mRNA transcript in HMC-1 cells was not detectable by means of PCR after reverse transcription (RT-PCR) analysis, suggesting that the constitutive activation of c-kitR was ligand independent. Sequencing of whole coding region of c-kit cDNA revealed that c-kit genes of HMC-1 cells were composed of a normal, wild-type allele and a mutant allele with two point mutations resulting in intracellular amino acid substitutions of Gly-560 for Val and Val-816 for Asp. Amino acid sequences in the regions of the two mutations are completely conserved in all of mouse, rat, and human c-kit. In order to determine the causal role of these mutations in the constitutive activation, murine c-kit mutants encoding Gly-559 and/or Val-814, corresponding to human Gly-560 and/or Val-816, were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis and expressed in a human embryonic kidney cell line, 293T cells. In the transfected cells, both c-kitR (Gly-559, Val-814) and c-kitR (Val-814) were abundantly phosphorylated on tyrosine and activated in immune complex kinase reaction in the absence of SCF, whereas tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of c-kitR (Gly-559) or wild-type c-kitR was modest or little, respectively. These results suggest that conversion of Asp-816 to Val in human c-kitR may be an activating mutation and responsible for the constitutive activation of c-kitR in HMC-1 cells.

  • Flow cytometry

Okada, S., et al. (1992). “In vivo and in vitro stem cell function of c-kit- and Sca-1-positive murine hematopoietic cells.” Blood 80(12): 3044-3050. PubMed

c-kit is expressed on hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells, but not on lymphohematopoietic differentiated cells. Lineage marker-negative, c-kit-positive (Lin-c-kit+) bone marrow cells were fractionated by means of Ly6A/E or Sca-1 expression. Lin-c-kit+Sca-1+ cells, which consisted of 0.08% of bone marrow nucleated cells, did not contain day-8 colony-forming units-spleen (CFU-S), but 80% were day-12 CFU-S. One hundred cells rescued the lethally irradiated mice and reconstituted hematopoiesis. On the other hand, 2 x 10(3) of Lin-c-kit+Sca-1- cells formed 20 day-8 and 11 day-12 spleen colonies, but they could not rescue the lethally irradiated mice. These data indicate that Lin-c-kit+Sca-1+ cells are primitive hematopoietic stem cells and that Sca-1-cells do not contain stem cells that reconstitute hematopoiesis. Lin-c-kit+Sca-1+ cells formed no colonies in the presence of stem cell factor (SCF) or interleukin-6 (IL-6), and only 10% of them formed colonies in the presence of IL-3. However, approximately 50% of them formed large colonies in the presence of IL-3, IL-6, and SCF. Moreover, when single cells were deposited into culture medium by fluorescence-activated cell sorter clone sorting system, 40% of them proliferated on a stromal cell line (PA-6) and proliferated for more than 2 weeks. In contrast, 15% of the Lin-c-kit+Sca-1-cells formed colonies in the presence of IL-3, but no synergistic effects were observed in combination with SCF plus IL-6 and/or IL-3. Approximately 10% proliferated on PA-6, but most of them degenerated within 2 weeks. The population ratio of c-kit+Sca-1+ to c-kit+Sca-1- increased 2 and 4 days after exposure to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). These results are consistent with the relative enrichment of highly proliferative colony-forming cells by 5-FU. These data show that, although c-kit is found both on the primitive hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors, Sca-1+ cells are more primitive and respond better than Sca-1- cells to a combination of hematopoietic factors, including SCF and stromal cells.

  • in vivo c-Kit+ cell depletion

Yoshinaga, K., et al. (1991). “Role of c-kit in mouse spermatogenesis: identification of spermatogonia as a specific site of c-kit expression and function.” Development 113(2): 689-699. PubMed

Recent studies have shown that the dominant white spotting (W) locus encodes the proto-oncogene c-kit, a member of the tyrosine kinase receptor family. One symptom of mice bearing mutation within this gene is sterility due to developmental failure of the primordial germ cells during early embryogenesis. To elucidate the role of the c-kit in gametogenesis, we used an anti-c-kit monoclonal antibody, ACK2, as an antagonistic blocker for c-kit function to interfere with the development of male and female germ cells during postnatal life. ACK2 enabled us to detect the expression of c-kit in the gonadal tissue and also to determine the functional status of c-kit, which is expressed on the surface of a particular cell lineage. Consistent with our immunohistochemical findings, the intravenous injection of ACK2 into adult mice caused a depletion in the differentiating type A spermatogonia from the testis during 24-36 h, while the undifferentiated type A spermatogonia were basically unaffected. Intraperitoneal injections of ACK2 into prepuberal mice could completely block the mitosis of mature (differentiating) type A spermatogonia, but not the mitosis of the gonocytes and primitive type A spermatogonia, or the meiosis of spermatocytes. Our results indicate that the survival and/or proliferation of the differentiating type A spermatogonia requires c-kit, but the primitive (undifferentiated) type A spermatogonia or spermatogenic stem cells are independent from c-kit. Moreover, the antibody administration had no significant effect on oocyte maturation despite its intense expression of c-kit.