About InVivoMAb anti-human EGFR
The 425 monoclonal antibody reacts with an epitope on the extracellular domain of human EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) also known as ErbB-1. EGFR is a 170 kDa cell-surface receptor and belongs to the ErbB family of receptors. EGFR signaling is activated upon binding one of its ligands including epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor α (TGFα), Amphiregulin, and heparin binding-EGF (HB-EGF). Upon activation, EGFR transitions from an inactive monomeric form to an active homodimer. This initiates several downstream signal transduction cascades including the MAPK, Akt and JNK pathways, leading to DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. EGFR overexpression or constitutive activation are associated with many cancers. For this reason, anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody mediated immunotherapies are currently being explored as cancer treatments. The 425 antibody does not induce tyrosine kinase activity but inhibits the binding of EGF and transforming growth factor α (TGFα) to EGFR, which results in tumor growth inhibition in vitro and in vivo.
InVivoMAb anti-human EGFR Specifications
|Isotype||Mouse IgG2a, κ|
|Recommended Isotype Control(s)|
|Recommended Dilution Buffer|
|Immunogen||Human A431 carcinoma cells|
|Sterility||0.2 μM filtered|
|Production||Purified from tissue culture supernatant in an animal free facility|
|Molecular Weight||150 kDa|
|Storage||The antibody solution should be stored undiluted at 4°C, and protected from prolonged exposure to light. Do not freeze.|
InVivoMAb anti-human EGFR
in vitro EGFR blockade
Koopmans, I., et al. (2018). "A novel bispecific antibody for EGFR-directed blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint." Oncoimmunology 7(8): e1466016. PubMed
PD-L1-blocking antibodies produce significant clinical benefit in selected cancer patients by reactivating functionally-impaired antigen-experienced anticancer T cells. However, the efficacy of current PD-L1-blocking antibodies is potentially reduced by ‘on-target/off-tumor’ binding to PD-L1 widely expressed on normal cells. This lack of tumor selectivity may induce a generalized activation of all antigen-experienced T cells which may explain the frequent occurrence of autoimmune-related adverse events during and after treatment. To address these issues, we constructed a bispecific antibody (bsAb), designated PD-L1xEGFR, to direct PD-L1-blockade to EGFR-expressing cancer cells and to more selectively reactivate anticancer T cells. Indeed, the IC50 of PD-L1xEGFR for blocking PD-L1 on EGFR(+) cancer cells was approximately 140 fold lower compared to that of the analogous PD-L1-blocking bsAb PD-L1xMock with irrelevant target antigen specificity. Importantly, activation status, IFN-gamma production, and oncolytic activity of anti-CD3xanti-EpCAM-redirected T cells was enhanced when cocultured with EGFR-expressing carcinoma cells. Similarly, the capacity of PD-L1xEGFR to promote proliferation and IFN-gamma production by CMVpp65-directed CD8(+) effector T cells was enhanced when cocultured with EGFR-expressing CMVpp65-transfected cancer cells. In contrast, the clinically-used PD-L1-blocking antibody MEDI4736 (durvalumab) promoted T cell activation indiscriminate of EGFR expression on cancer cells. Additionally, in mice xenografted with EGFR-expressing cancer cells (111)In-PD-L1xEGFR showed a significantly higher tumor uptake compared to (111)In-PD-L1xMock. In conclusion, PD-L1xEGFR blocks the PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint in an EGFR-directed manner, thereby promoting the selective reactivation of anticancer T cells. This novel targeted approach may be useful to enhance efficacy and safety of PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint blockade in EGFR-overexpressing malignancies.
in vivo EGFR blockade in xenografts
van Gog, F. B., et al. (1998). "Perspectives of combined radioimmunotherapy and anti-EGFR antibody therapy for the treatment of residual head and neck cancer." Int J Cancer 77(1): 13-18. PubMed
Rhenium-186 based radioimmunotherapy (RIT) may have potential for the treatment of minimal residual disease in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck (HNSCC). In an effort to enhance the efficacy of RIT, we evaluated the combination of RIT and anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy in nude mice bearing established HNSCC s.c. xenografts. For this purpose we used the EGFR-blocking monoclonal antibody (MAb) 425. Treatment of HNSCC-bearing mice with the combination of a single administration of 200 microCi 186Re-labeled MAb U36 as well as 1.1 mg unlabeled MAb 425 showed an enhanced efficacy in comparison to the single treatments. When 500 microCi 186Re-labeled MAb U36 were administered, all tumors eventually regressed completely. The combination of this RIT treatment with multiple injections of MAb 425 significantly increased the rate of tumor regression. Although RIT with 186Re-labeled MAbs appears to be very efficient on HNSCC xenografts, the combination with anti-EGFR MAb 425 may enhance the efficacy.
in vitro EGFR blockade
Rubin Grandis, J., et al. (1997). "Inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor gene expression and function decreases proliferation of head and neck squamous carcinoma but not normal mucosal epithelial cells." Oncogene 15(4): 409-416. PubMed
Previous reports have shown that fresh tissues and cell lines from patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) overexpress transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) and its receptor, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) at both the mRNA and protein levels. Protein localization studies confirm that TGF-alpha and EGFR are produced by the same epithelial cells in tissues from head and neck cancer patients further supporting an autocrine growth pathway. Using three strategies, we examined the hypothesis that downmodulation of EGFR would reduce the proliferation of SCCHN cells. We targeted EGFR mRNA using antisense oligonucleotides and the mature EGFR protein at two sites, the ligand-binding domain and the kinase domain, and determined the effects of this targeting on SCCHN proliferation. Treatment of several SCCHN cell lines with a pair of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides directed against the translation start site and first intron-exon splice junction of the human EGFR gene resulted in decreased EGFR protein production and inhibited growth by 86% compared to a 13% reduction in cells treated with sense oligonucleotides (P=0.03). Growth inhibition was specific for carcinoma cells since the same EGFR antisense oligonucleotides had no effect on the proliferation of normal mucosa cells harvested from non-cancer patients. Two monoclonal antibodies which block ligand binding to EGFR (MAbs 425 and 528) inhibited the growth of several SCCHN cell lines by up to 97% which suggests that EGFR is participating in an autocrine pathway in SCCHN that is, at least in part, external. An EGFR-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor (PD 153035) was found to inhibit EGFR phosphorylation in SCCHN cell lines and to reduce growth by 68% although it had no effect on the growth rate of normal mucosal epithelial cells. These experiments indicate that EGFR gene expression and function is critical for SCCHN cell growth but not for growth of normal mucosa cells and therefore may serve as a tumor-specific target for preventive and therapeutic strategies in head and neck cancer.
in vitro EGFR blockade
Murthy, U., et al. (1990). "Inhibition of TGF alpha-induced second messengers by anti-EGF receptor antibody-425." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 172(2): 471-476. PubMed
Monoclonal antibody 425 binds to a protein epitope of the human EGF receptor and blocks EGF dependent functions such as EGF receptor phosphorylation and mitogenesis (1). We now show that MAb 425 blocks TGF alpha-induced second messenger signals, namely inositol 1,4,5 triphosphate and Ca2+ in two carcinoma cell lines, A 431 and SW-948. In this study we have further characterized the specificity of this antibody for inhibiting TGF alpha induced mitogenesis in MRC-5, a EGF-receptor expressing fibroblast cell line.
Murthy, U., et al. (1987). "Binding of an antagonistic monoclonal antibody to an intact and fragmented EGF-receptor polypeptide." Arch Biochem Biophys 252(2): 549-560. PubMed
A murine monoclonal antibody (No. 425) raised against human A431 carcinoma cells specifically immunoprecipitates the 170,000 molecular weight epidermal growth factor (EGF)-receptor from extracts of A431 cells as well as from extracts of human placenta and cultured fibroblasts, but does not recognize the murine receptor. Binding to the external domain of the human EGF-receptor was indicated by indirect immunofluorescent staining of fixed nonpermeable cells. The antibody binds to both glyco- and aglycoreceptor forms, indicating that the epitope is a part of the polypeptide chain. Binding of the antibody to the receptor is conformation dependent; i.e., denatured receptors lacking EGF-binding activity are not recognized by the antibody. The results of antibody binding studies indicate that the epitope is closely linked to the EGF binding active site, and is common to both high- and low-affinity EGF-receptors. Interaction of this epitope with the antibody inhibits EGF binding and bioactivity, and triggers receptor down-regulation, but does not generate EGFlike kinase-stimulatory or mitogenic responses either in vitro or in vivo. The antibody was tested for its ability to bind to domain-sized fragments of the 170-kDa EGF-receptor. It can recognize both the proteolytically generated 110-kDa EGF binding peptide, and a soluble 100-kDa EGF-receptor secreted by A431 cells. This indicates that the epitope recognized this antibody retains its conformation after proteolytic separation of the EGF binding domain from the rest of the receptor molecule.