About InVivoMAb Armenian hamster IgG isotype control, anti-glutathione S-transferase
The PIP monoclonal antibody reacts with glutathione-S-transferase (GST) of Schistosoma japonicum origin. Because S. japonicum GST is not expressed by mammals this antibody is ideal for use as an isotype control for Armenian hamster IgG antibodies in most in vivo and in vitro applications.
InVivoMAb Armenian hamster IgG isotype control, anti-glutathione S-transferase Specifications
|Isotype||Armenian hamster IgG|
|Recommended Dilution Buffer|
|Sterility||0.2 μM filtered|
|Production||Purified from tissue culture supernatant in an animal free facility|
|Molecular Weight||150 kDa|
|Storage||The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.|
InVivoMAb Armenian hamster IgG isotype control, anti-glutathione S-transferase
Bonnardel, J., et al. (2019). “Stellate Cells, Hepatocytes, and Endothelial Cells Imprint the Kupffer Cell Identity on Monocytes Colonizing the Liver Macrophage Niche.” Immunity 51(4): 638-654.e639. PubMed
Macrophages are strongly adapted to their tissue of residence. Yet, little is known about the cell-cell interactions that imprint the tissue-specific identities of macrophages in their respective niches. Using conditional depletion of liver Kupffer cells, we traced the developmental stages of monocytes differentiating into Kupffer cells and mapped the cellular interactions imprinting the Kupffer cell identity. Kupffer cell loss induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- and interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor-dependent activation of stellate cells and endothelial cells, resulting in the transient production of chemokines and adhesion molecules orchestrating monocyte engraftment. Engrafted circulating monocytes transmigrated into the perisinusoidal space and acquired the liver-associated transcription factors inhibitor of DNA 3 (ID3) and liver X receptor-α (LXR-α). Coordinated interactions with hepatocytes induced ID3 expression, whereas endothelial cells and stellate cells induced LXR-α via a synergistic NOTCH-BMP pathway. This study shows that the Kupffer cell niche is composed of stellate cells, hepatocytes, and endothelial cells that together imprint the liver-specific macrophage identity.
Han, X., et al. (2019). “Role of CXCR3 signaling in response to anti-PD-1 therapy.” EBioMedicine 48: 169-177. PubMed
BACKGROUND: Tumor mutations and tumor microenvironment are associated with resistance to cancer immunotherapies. However, peripheral T cell in effective anti-programmed death 1 (PD-1) antibody treatment is poorly understood. METHODS: Mass spectrometry and conventional flow cytometry were used to investigate peripheral blood cells isolated from patients. Furthermore, melanoma mouse model was performed to assess the role of CXCR3 signaling in anti-PD-1 antibody treatment. FINDINGS: We revealed a marked increase in the percentage of CXCR3(+) T cells in the blood of cancer patients after the first pembrolizumab infusion. This percentage decreased after the second infusion in responsive patients, whereas a sustained high percentage of CXCR3(+) T cells was observed in patients with progressive disease. A low percentage of CXCR3(+) T cells presented in patients with stable disease or a partial response was confirmed by conventional flow cytometry. Intriguingly, blockade of CXCR3 signaling exacerbated tumor growth in mice. Intratumoral injection with recombinant CXCL9/10 plus intraperitoneal injection of anti-PD1 antibody inhibited the tumor growth in mice. INTERPRETATION: The dynamic changes in CXCR3(+) T cells in blood may be a prognostic factor in anti-PD-1 immunotherapy, and promotion of CXCR3-mediated signaling may be beneficial to the anti-PD-1 therapy. FUND: This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 81722047, 81871944, 81670553, 81874317, 81572389, 81730100) and Jiangsu province key medical talents (Nos. ZDRCA2016026), The “Deng Feng” Distinguished Scholars Program, National Science & Technology Major Project “Key New Drug Creation and Manufacturing Program”, China (Number: 2018ZX09201002), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (020814380117).
Young, A. R., et al. (2019). “Dermal and muscle fibroblasts and skeletal myofibers survive chikungunya virus infection and harbor persistent RNA.” PLoS Pathog 15(8): e1007993. PubMed
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic alphavirus that acutely causes fever as well as severe joint and muscle pain. Chronic musculoskeletal pain persists in a substantial fraction of patients for months to years after the initial infection, yet we still have a poor understanding of what promotes chronic disease. While replicating virus has not been detected in joint-associated tissues of patients with persistent arthritis nor in various animal models at convalescent time points, viral RNA is detected months after acute infection. To identify the cells that might contribute to pathogenesis during this chronic phase, we developed a recombinant CHIKV that expresses Cre recombinase (CHIKV-3′-Cre). CHIKV-3′-Cre replicated in myoblasts and fibroblasts, and it induced arthritis during the acute phase in mice. Importantly, it also induced chronic disease, including persistent viral RNA and chronic myositis and synovitis similar to wild-type virus. CHIKV-3′-Cre infection of tdTomato reporter mice resulted in a population of tdTomato+ cells that persisted for at least 112 days. Immunofluorescence and flow cytometric profiling revealed that these tdTomato+ cells predominantly were myofibers and dermal and muscle fibroblasts. Treatment with an antibody against Mxra8, a recently defined host receptor for CHIKV, reduced the number of tdTomato+ cells in the chronic phase and diminished the levels of chronic viral RNA, implicating these tdTomato+ cells as the reservoir of chronic viral RNA. Finally, isolation and flow cytometry-based sorting of the tdTomato+ fibroblasts from the skin and ankle and analysis for viral RNA revealed that the tdTomato+ cells harbor most of the persistent CHIKV RNA at chronic time points. Therefore, this CHIKV-3′-Cre and tdTomato reporter mouse system identifies the cells that survive CHIKV infection in vivo and are enriched for persistent CHIKV RNA. This model represents a useful tool for studying CHIKV pathogenesis in the acute and chronic stages of disease.
Zhang, R., et al. (2019). “Expression of the Mxra8 Receptor Promotes Alphavirus Infection and Pathogenesis in Mice and Drosophila.” Cell Rep 28(10): 2647-2658.e2645. PubMed
Mxra8 is a recently described receptor for multiple alphaviruses, including Chikungunya (CHIKV), Mayaro (MAYV), Ross River (RRV), and O’nyong nyong (ONNV) viruses. To determine its role in pathogenesis, we generated mice with mutant Mxra8 alleles: an 8-nucleotide deletion that produces a truncated, soluble form (Mxra8(Δ8/Δ8)) and a 97-nucleotide deletion that abolishes Mxra8 expression (Mxra8(Δ97/Δ97)). Mxra8(Δ8/Δ8) and Mxra8(Δ97/Δ97) fibroblasts show reduced CHIKV infection in culture, and Mxra8(Δ8/Δ8) and Mxra8(Δ97/Δ97) mice have decreased infection of musculoskeletal tissues with CHIKV, MAYV, RRV, or ONNV. Less foot swelling is observed in CHIKV-infected Mxra8 mutant mice, which correlated with fewer infiltrating neutrophils and cytokines. A recombinant E2-D71A CHIKV with diminished binding to Mxra8 is attenuated in vivo in wild-type mice. Ectopic Mxra8 expression is sufficient to enhance CHIKV infection and lethality in transgenic flies. These studies establish a role for Mxra8 in the pathogenesis of multiple alphaviruses and suggest that targeting this protein may mitigate disease in humans.
Zhang, R., et al. (2018). “Mxra8 is a receptor for multiple arthritogenic alphaviruses.” Nature 557(7706): 570-574. PubMed
Arthritogenic alphaviruses comprise a group of enveloped RNA viruses that are transmitted to humans by mosquitoes and cause debilitating acute and chronic musculoskeletal disease (1) . The host factors required for alphavirus entry remain poorly characterized (2) . Here we use a genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9-based screen to identify the cell adhesion molecule Mxra8 as an entry mediator for multiple emerging arthritogenic alphaviruses, including chikungunya, Ross River, Mayaro and O’nyong nyong viruses. Gene editing of mouse Mxra8 or human MXRA8 resulted in reduced levels of viral infection of cells and, reciprocally, ectopic expression of these genes resulted in increased infection. Mxra8 bound directly to chikungunya virus particles and enhanced virus attachment and internalization into cells. Consistent with these findings, Mxra8-Fc fusion protein or anti-Mxra8 monoclonal antibodies blocked chikungunya virus infection in multiple cell types, including primary human synovial fibroblasts, osteoblasts, chondrocytes and skeletal muscle cells. Mutagenesis experiments suggest that Mxra8 binds to a surface-exposed region across the A and B domains of chikungunya virus E2 protein, which are a speculated site of attachment. Finally, administration of the Mxra8-Fc protein or anti-Mxra8 blocking antibodies to mice reduced chikungunya and O’nyong nyong virus infection as well as associated foot swelling. Pharmacological targeting of Mxra8 could form a strategy for mitigating infection and disease by multiple arthritogenic alphaviruses.