About InVivoPlus rat IgG1 isotype control, anti-trinitrophenol
The TNP6A7 monoclonal antibody reacts with trinitrophenol (TNP). Because TNP is not expressed by mammals this antibody is ideal for use as an isotype-matched control for rat IgG1 antibodies in most in vivo and in vitro applications. This antibody can be used as an alternative to BP0088.
InVivoPlus rat IgG1 isotype control, anti-trinitrophenol Specifications
|Isotype||Rat IgG1, λ|
|Recommended Dilution Buffer|
|Sterility||0.2 μM filtered|
|Production||Purified from tissue culture supernatant in an animal free facility|
|Molecular Weight||150 kDa|
|*Murine Pathogen Test Results|
|Storage||The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.|
InVivoPlus rat IgG1 isotype control, anti-trinitrophenol (Clone: TNP6A7)
Groves, H. T., et al. (2020). “Respiratory Viral Infection Alters the Gut Microbiota by Inducing Inappetence.” mBio 11(1). PubMed
Respiratory viral infections are extremely common, but their impacts on the composition and function of the gut microbiota are poorly understood. We previously observed a significant change in the gut microbiota after viral lung infection. Here, we show that weight loss during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or influenza virus infection was due to decreased food consumption, and that the fasting of mice altered gut microbiota composition independently of infection. While the acute phase tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) response drove early weight loss and inappetence during RSV infection, this was not sufficient to induce changes in the gut microbiota. However, the depletion of CD8(+) cells increased food intake and prevented weight loss, resulting in a reversal of the gut microbiota changes normally observed during RSV infection. Viral infection also led to changes in the fecal gut metabolome, with a significant shift in lipid metabolism. Sphingolipids, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) valerate were all increased in abundance in the fecal metabolome following RSV infection. Whether this and the impact of infection-induced anorexia on the gut microbiota are part of a protective anti-inflammatory response during respiratory viral infections remains to be determined.IMPORTANCE The gut microbiota has an important role in health and disease: gut bacteria can generate metabolites that alter the function of immune cells systemically. Understanding the factors that can lead to changes in the gut microbiome may help to inform therapeutic interventions. This is the first study to systematically dissect the pathway of events from viral lung infection to changes in gut microbiota. We show that the cellular immune response to viral lung infection induces inappetence, which in turn alters the gut microbiome and metabolome. Strikingly, there was an increase in lipids that have been associated with the resolution of disease. This opens up new paths of investigation: first, what is the (presumably secreted) factor made by the T cells that can induce inappetence? Second, is inappetence an adaptation that accelerates recovery from infection, and if so, does the microbiome play a role in this?
Al Sayed, M. F., et al. (2019). “T-cell-Secreted TNFα Induces Emergency Myelopoiesis and Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cell Differentiation in Cancer.” Cancer Res 79(2): 346-359. PubMed
Hematopoiesis in patients with cancer is characterized by reduced production of red blood cells and an increase in myelopoiesis, which contributes to the immunosuppressive environment in cancer. Some tumors produce growth factors that directly stimulate myelopoiesis such as G-CSF or GM-CSF. However, for a majority of tumors that do not directly secrete hematopoietic growth factors, the mechanisms involved in the activation of myelopoiesis are poorly characterized. In this study, we document in different murine tumor models activated hematopoiesis with increased proliferation of long-term and short-term hematopoietic stem cells and myeloid progenitor cells. As a consequence, the frequency of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and its ratio to CD8(+) T cells increased in tumor-bearing mice. Activation of hematopoiesis and myeloid differentiation in tumor-bearing mice was induced by TNFα, which was mainly secreted by activated CD4(+) T cells. Therefore, the activated adaptive immune system in cancer induces emergency myelopoiesis and immunosuppression. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings characterize a regulatory circuit linking activated T cells to suppression of tumor-specific immune responses, providing a conceptual advance in the understanding of emergency-hematopoiesis in cancer and opening new targets for therapeutic approaches.
Claser, C., et al. (2019). “Lung endothelial cell antigen cross-presentation to CD8(+)T cells drives malaria-associated lung injury.” Nat Commun 10(1): 4241. PubMed
Malaria-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and acute lung injury (ALI) are life-threatening manifestations of severe malaria infections. The pathogenic mechanisms that lead to respiratory complications, such as vascular leakage, remain unclear. Here, we confirm that depleting CD8(+)T cells with anti-CD8β antibodies in C57BL/6 mice infected with P. berghei ANKA (PbA) prevent pulmonary vascular leakage. When we transfer activated parasite-specific CD8(+)T cells into PbA-infected TCRβ(-/-) mice (devoid of all T-cell populations), pulmonary vascular leakage recapitulates. Additionally, we demonstrate that PbA-infected erythrocyte accumulation leads to lung endothelial cell cross-presentation of parasite antigen to CD8(+)T cells in an IFNγ-dependent manner. In conclusion, pulmonary vascular damage in ALI is a consequence of IFNγ-activated lung endothelial cells capturing, processing, and cross-presenting malaria parasite antigen to specific CD8(+)T cells induced during infection. The mechanistic understanding of the immunopathogenesis in malaria-associated ARDS and ALI provide the basis for development of adjunct treatments.
Bauche, D., et al. (2018). “LAG3(+) Regulatory T Cells Restrain Interleukin-23-Producing CX3CR1(+) Gut-Resident Macrophages during Group 3 Innate Lymphoid Cell-Driven Colitis.” Immunity 49(2): 342-352 e345. PubMed
Interleukin-22 (IL-22)-producing group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) maintains gut homeostasis but can also promote inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The regulation of ILC3-dependent colitis remains to be elucidated. Here we show that Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg cells) prevented ILC3-mediated colitis in an IL-10-independent manner. Treg cells inhibited IL-23 and IL-1beta production from intestinal-resident CX3CR1(+) macrophages but not CD103(+) dendritic cells. Moreover, Treg cells restrained ILC3 production of IL-22 through suppression of CX3CR1(+) macrophage production of IL-23 and IL-1beta. This suppression was contact dependent and was mediated by latent activation gene-3 (LAG-3)-an immune checkpoint receptor-expressed on Treg cells. Engagement of LAG-3 on MHC class II drove profound immunosuppression of CX3CR1(+) tissue-resident macrophages. Our study reveals that the health of the intestinal mucosa is maintained by an axis driven by Treg cells communication with resident macrophages that withhold inflammatory stimuli required for ILC3 function.
Kugel, C. H., 3rd, et al. (2018). “Age Correlates with Response to Anti-PD1, Reflecting Age-Related Differences in Intratumoral Effector and Regulatory T-Cell Populations.” Clin Cancer Res 24(21): 5347-5356. PubMed
Purpose: We have shown that the aged microenvironment increases melanoma metastasis, and decreases response to targeted therapy, and here we queried response to anti-PD1.Experimental Design: We analyzed the relationship between age, response to anti-PD1, and prior therapy in 538 patients. We used mouse models of melanoma, to analyze the intratumoral immune microenvironment in young versus aged mice and confirmed our findings in human melanoma biopsies.Results: Patients over the age of 60 responded more efficiently to anti-PD-1, and likelihood of response to anti-PD-1 increased with age, even when we controlled for prior MAPKi therapy. Placing genetically identical tumors in aged mice (52 weeks) significantly increased their response to anti-PD1 as compared with the same tumors in young mice (8 weeks). These data suggest that this increased response in aged patients occurs even in the absence of a more complex mutational landscape. Next, we found that young mice had a significantly higher population of regulatory T cells (Tregs), skewing the CD8(+):Treg ratio. FOXP3 staining of human melanoma biopsies revealed similar increases in Tregs in young patients. Depletion of Tregs using anti-CD25 increased the response to anti-PD1 in young mice.Conclusions: While there are obvious limitations to our study, including our inability to conduct a meta-analysis due to a lack of available data, and our inability to control for mutational burden, there is a remarkable consistency in these data from over 500 patients across 8 different institutes worldwide. These results stress the importance of considering age as a factor for immunotherapy response. Clin Cancer Res; 24(21); 5347-56. ©2018 AACR See related commentary by Pawelec, p. 5193.
Kuranda, K., et al. (2018). “Exposure to wild-type AAV drives distinct capsid immunity profiles in humans.” J Clin Invest 128(12): 5267-5279. PubMed
Recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have been broadly adopted as a gene delivery tool in clinical trials, owing to their high efficiency of transduction of several host tissues and their low immunogenicity. However, a considerable proportion of the population is naturally exposed to the WT virus from which AAV vectors are derived, which leads to the acquisition of immunological memory that can directly determine the outcome of gene transfer. Here, we show that prior exposure to AAV drives distinct capsid immunity profiles in healthy subjects. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from AAV-seropositive donors, recombinant AAV triggered TNF-α secretion in memory CD8+ T cells, B cell differentiation into antibody-secreting cells, and anti-capsid antibody production. Conversely, PBMCs isolated from AAV-seronegative individuals appeared to carry a population of NK cells reactive to AAV. Further, we demonstrated that the AAV capsid activates IL-1β and IL-6 cytokine secretion in monocyte-related dendritic cells (moDCs). IL-1β and IL-6 blockade inhibited the anti-capsid humoral response in vitro and in vivo. These results provide insights into immune responses to AAV in humans, define a possible role for moDCs and NK cells in capsid immunity, and open new avenues for the modulation of vector immunogenicity.
Zhang, Y., et al. (2018). “Macrophage-Associated PGK1 Phosphorylation Promotes Aerobic Glycolysis and Tumorigenesis.” Mol Cell 71(2): 201-215.e207. PubMed
Macrophages are a dominant leukocyte population in the tumor microenvironment and actively promote cancer progression. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the role of macrophages remains poorly understood. Here we show that polarized M2 macrophages enhance 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDPK1)-mediated phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) threonine (T) 243 phosphorylation in tumor cells by secreting interleukin-6 (IL-6). This phosphorylation facilitates a PGK1-catalyzed reaction toward glycolysis by altering substrate affinity. Inhibition of PGK1 T243 phosphorylation or PDPK1 in tumor cells or neutralization of macrophage-derived IL-6 abrogates macrophage-promoted glycolysis, proliferation, and tumorigenesis. In addition, PGK1 T243 phosphorylation correlates with PDPK1 activation, IL-6 expression, and macrophage infiltration in human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Moreover, PGK1 T243 phosphorylation also correlates with malignance and prognosis of human GBM. Our findings demonstrate a novel mechanism of macrophage-promoted tumor growth by regulating tumor cell metabolism, implicating the therapeutic potential to disrupt the connection between macrophages and tumor cells by inhibiting PGK1 phosphorylation.