About InVivoMAb anti-human CD1a
The OKT-6 monoclonal antibody reacts with human CD1a a member of the CD1 family of transmembrane glycoproteins. The CD1 proteins are structurally related to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins and form heterodimers with β2-microglobulin. The CD1 proteins mediate the presentation of primarily lipid and glycolipid antigens of self or microbial origin to T cells.
InVivoMAb anti-human CD1a Specifications
|Recommended Isotype Control(s)|
|Recommended Dilution Buffer|
|Immunogen||Human acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cells|
|Sterility||0.2 μM filtered|
|Production||Purified from tissue culture supernatant in an animal free facility|
|Molecular Weight||150 kDa|
|Storage||The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.|
InVivoMAb anti-human CD1a (Clone: OKT-6)
Bourgeois, E. A., et al. (2015). “Bee venom processes human skin lipids for presentation by CD1a.” J Exp Med 212(2): 149-163. PubMed
Venoms frequently co-opt host immune responses, so study of their mode of action can provide insight into novel inflammatory pathways. Using bee and wasp venom responses as a model system, we investigated whether venoms contain CD1-presented antigens. Here, we show that venoms activate human T cells via CD1a proteins. Whereas CD1 proteins typically present lipids, chromatographic separation of venoms unexpectedly showed that stimulatory factors partition into protein-containing fractions. This finding was explained by demonstrating that bee venom-derived phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activates T cells through generation of small neoantigens, such as free fatty acids and lysophospholipids, from common phosphodiacylglycerides. Patient studies showed that injected PLA2 generates lysophospholipids within human skin in vivo, and polyclonal T cell responses are dependent on CD1a protein and PLA2. These findings support a previously unknown skin immune response based on T cell recognition of CD1a proteins and lipid neoantigen generated in vivo by phospholipases. The findings have implications for skin barrier sensing by T cells and mechanisms underlying phospholipase-dependent inflammatory skin disease.
Subramaniam, S., et al. (2015). “Elevated and cross-responsive CD1a-reactive T cells in bee and wasp venom allergic individuals.” Eur J Immunol. doi: 10.1002/eji.201545869. PubMed
The role of CD1a-reactive T cells in human allergic disease is unknown. We have previously shown that circulating CD1a-reactive T cells recognise neolipid antigens generated by bee and wasp venom phospholipase, and here tested the hypothesis that venom-responsive CD1a-reactive T cells associate with venom allergy. Circulating T cells from bee and wasp venom allergic individuals, before and during immunotherapy, were exposed to CD1a-transfected K562 cells in the presence of wasp or bee venom. T-cell response was evaluated based on IFNgamma, GM-CSF and IL-13 cytokine production. Venom allergic individuals showed significantly higher frequencies of IFN-gamma, GM-CSF and IL-13 producing CD1a-reactive T cells responsive to venom and venom derived phospholipase than healthy individuals. Venom-responsive CD1a-reactive T cells were cross-responsive between wasp and bee suggesting shared pathways of allergenicity. Frequencies of CD1a-reactive T cells were initially induced during subcutaneous immunotherapy, peaking by weeks 5, but then reduced despite escalation of antigen dose. Our current understanding of venom allergy and immunotherapy is largely based on peptide and protein-specific T cell and antibody responses. Here, we show that lipid antigens and CD1a-reactive T cells associate with the allergic response. These data have implications for mechanisms of allergy and approaches to immunotherapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
de Jong, A., et al. (2014). “CD1a-autoreactive T cells recognize natural skin oils that function as headless antigens.” Nat Immunol 15(2): 177-185. PubMed
T cells autoreactive to the antigen-presenting molecule CD1a are common in human blood and skin, but the search for natural autoantigens has been confounded by background T cell responses to CD1 proteins and self lipids. After capturing CD1a-lipid complexes, we gently eluted ligands while preserving non-ligand-bound CD1a for testing lipids from tissues. CD1a released hundreds of ligands of two types. Inhibitory ligands were ubiquitous membrane lipids with polar head groups, whereas stimulatory compounds were apolar oils. We identified squalene and wax esters, which naturally accumulate in epidermis and sebum, as autoantigens presented by CD1a. The activation of T cells by skin oils suggested that headless mini-antigens nest within CD1a and displace non-antigenic resident lipids with large head groups. Oily autoantigens naturally coat the surface of the skin; thus, this points to a previously unknown mechanism of barrier immunity.
Ly, D., et al. (2013). “CD1c tetramers detect ex vivo T cell responses to processed phosphomycoketide antigens.” J Exp Med 210(4): 729-741. PubMed
CD1c is expressed with high density on human dendritic cells (DCs) and B cells, yet its antigen presentation functions are the least well understood among CD1 family members. Using a CD1c-reactive T cell line (DN6) to complete an organism-wide survey of M. tuberculosis lipids, we identified C32 phosphomycoketide (PM) as a previously unknown molecule and a CD1c-presented antigen. CD1c binding and presentation of mycoketide antigens absolutely required the unusual, mycobacteria-specific lipid branching patterns introduced by polyketide synthase 12 (pks12). Unexpectedly, one TCR responded to diversely glycosylated and unglycosylated forms of mycoketide when presented by DCs and B cells. Yet cell-free systems showed that recognition was mediated only by the deglycosylated phosphoantigen. These studies identify antigen processing of a natural bacterial antigen in the human CD1c system, indicating that cells act on glycolipids to generate a highly simplified neoepitope composed of a sugar-free phosphate anion. Using knowledge of this processed antigen, we generated human CD1c tetramers, and demonstrate that CD1c-PM complexes stain T cell receptors (TCRs), providing direct evidence for a ternary interaction among CD1c-lipid-TCR. Furthermore, PM-loaded CD1c tetramers detect fresh human T cells from peripheral blood, demonstrating a polyclonal response to PM antigens in humans ex vivo.
Seshadri, C., et al. (2013). “Human CD1a deficiency is common and genetically regulated.” J Immunol 191(4): 1586-1593. PubMed
CD1 proteins evolved to present diverse lipid Ags to T cells. In comparison with MHC proteins, CD1 proteins exhibit minimal allelic diversity as a result of nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, it is unknown if common SNPs in gene regulatory regions affect CD1 expression and function. We report surprising diversity in patterns of inducible CD1a expression on human dendritic cells (DCs), spanning the full range from undetectable to high density, a finding not seen with other CD1 isoforms. CD1a-deficient DCs failed to present mycobacterial lipopeptide to T cells but had no defects in endocytosis, cytokine secretion, or expression of costimulatory molecules after LPS treatment. We identified an SNP in the 5′ untranslated region (rs366316) that was common and strongly associated with low CD1a surface expression and mRNA levels (p = 0.03 and p = 0.001, respectively). Using a CD1a promoter-luciferase system in combination with mutagenesis studies, we found that the polymorphic allele reduced luciferase expression by 44% compared with the wild-type variant (p < 0.001). Genetic regulation of lipid Ag presentation by varying expression on human DCs provides a mechanism for achieving population level differences in immune responses despite limited structural variation in CD1a proteins.
Seshadri, C., et al. (2013). “Lipoproteins are major targets of the polyclonal human T cell response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.” J Immunol 190(1): 278-284. PubMed
Most vaccines and basic studies of T cell epitopes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis emphasize water-soluble proteins that are secreted into the extracellular space and presented in the context of MHC class II. Much less is known about the role of Ags retained within the cell wall. We used polyclonal T cells from infected humans to probe for responses to immunodominant Ags in the M. tuberculosis cell wall. We found that the magnitude of response to secreted or cell wall intrinsic compounds was similar among healthy controls, patients with latent tuberculosis, and patients with active tuberculosis. Individual responses to secreted Ags and cell wall extract were strongly correlated (r(2) = 0.495, p = 0.001), suggesting that T cells responding to cell wall and secreted Ags are present at similar frequency. Surprisingly, T cell stimulatory factors intrinsic to the cell wall partition into organic solvents; however, these responses are not explained by CD1-mediated presentation of lipids. Instead, we find that molecules soluble in organic solvents are dependent upon MHC class II and recognized by IFN-gamma-secreting CD4(+) T cells. We reasoned that MHC class II-dependent Ags extracting into lipid mixtures might be found among triacylated lipoproteins present in mycobacteria. We used M. tuberculosis lacking prolipoprotein signal peptidase A (lspA), an enzyme required for lipoprotein synthesis, to demonstrate loss of polyclonal T cell responses. Our results demonstrate the use of bacterial genetics to identify lipoproteins as an unexpected and immunodominant class of cell wall-associated Ags targeted by the polyclonal human T cell response to M. tuberculosis.