About InVivoMAb anti-mouse MHC Class I (H-2Kb)
The AF6-22.214.171.124 monoclonal antibody reacts with the mouse H-2Kb MHC class I alloantigen. MHC class I antigens are heterodimers consisting of one alpha chain (44 kDa) associated with β2 microglobulin (11.5 kDa). The antigen is expressed by all nucleated cells at varying levels. MHC Class I molecules present endogenously synthesized antigenic peptides to CD8 T cells.
InVivoMAb anti-mouse MHC Class I (H-2Kb) Specifications
|Isotype||Mouse IgG2a, κ|
|Recommended Isotype Control(s)|
|Recommended Dilution Buffer|
|Immunogen||C57BL/6 mouse splenocytes|
|Sterility||0.2 μM filtered|
|Production||Purified from tissue culture supernatant in an animal free facility|
|Molecular Weight||150 kDa|
|Storage||The antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.|
InVivoMAb anti-mouse MHC Class I (H-2Kb) (Clone: AF6-126.96.36.199)
Paschall, A. V., et al. (2015). “IFN regulatory factor 8 represses GM-CSF expression in T cells to affect myeloid cell lineage differentiation.” J Immunol 194(5): 2369-2379. PubMed
During hematopoiesis, hematopoietic stem cells constantly differentiate into granulocytes and macrophages via a distinct differentiation program that is tightly controlled by myeloid lineage-specific transcription factors. Mice with a null mutation of IFN regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) accumulate CD11b(+)Gr1(+) myeloid cells that phenotypically and functionally resemble tumor-induced myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), indicating an essential role of IRF8 in myeloid cell lineage differentiation. However, IRF8 is expressed in various types of immune cells, and whether IRF8 functions intrinsically or extrinsically in regulation of myeloid cell lineage differentiation is not fully understood. In this study, we report an intriguing finding that, although IRF8-deficient mice exhibit deregulated myeloid cell differentiation and resultant accumulation of CD11b(+)Gr1(+) MDSCs, surprisingly, mice with IRF8 deficiency only in myeloid cells exhibit no abnormal myeloid cell lineage differentiation. Instead, mice with IRF8 deficiency only in T cells exhibited deregulated myeloid cell differentiation and MDSC accumulation. We further demonstrated that IRF8-deficient T cells exhibit elevated GM-CSF expression and secretion. Treatment of mice with GM-CSF increased MDSC accumulation, and adoptive transfer of IRF8-deficient T cells, but not GM-CSF-deficient T cells, increased MDSC accumulation in the recipient chimeric mice. Moreover, overexpression of IRF8 decreased GM-CSF expression in T cells. Our data determine that, in addition to its intrinsic function as an apoptosis regulator in myeloid cells, IRF8 also acts extrinsically to repress GM-CSF expression in T cells to control myeloid cell lineage differentiation, revealing a novel mechanism that the adaptive immune component of the immune system regulates the innate immune cell myelopoiesis in vivo.
Penaloza-MacMaster, P., et al. (2014). “Interplay between regulatory T cells and PD-1 in modulating T cell exhaustion and viral control during chronic LCMV infection.” J Exp Med 211(9): 1905-1918. PubMed
Regulatory T (T reg) cells are critical for preventing autoimmunity mediated by self-reactive T cells, but their role in modulating immune responses during chronic viral infection is not well defined. To address this question and to investigate a role for T reg cells in exhaustion of virus-specific CD8 T cells, we depleted T reg cells in mice chronically infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). T reg cell ablation resulted in 10-100-fold expansion of functional LCMV-specific CD8 T cells. Rescue of exhausted CD8 T cells was dependent on cognate antigen, B7 costimulation, and conventional CD4 T cells. Despite the striking recovery of LCMV-specific CD8 T cell responses, T reg cell depletion failed to diminish viral load. Interestingly, T reg cell ablation triggered up-regulation of the molecule programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1), which upon binding PD-1 on T cells delivers inhibitory signals. Increased PD-L1 expression was observed especially on LCMV-infected cells, and combining T reg cell depletion with PD-L1 blockade resulted in a significant reduction in viral titers, which was more pronounced than that upon PD-L1 blockade alone. These results suggest that T reg cells effectively maintain CD8 T cell exhaustion, but blockade of the PD-1 inhibitory pathway is critical for elimination of infected cells.
Kearl, T. J., et al. (2013). “Programmed death receptor-1/programmed death receptor ligand-1 blockade after transient lymphodepletion to treat myeloma.” J Immunol 190(11): 5620-5628. PubMed
Early phase clinical trials targeting the programmed death receptor-1/ligand-1 (PD-1/PD-L1) pathway to overcome tumor-mediated immunosuppression have reported promising results for a variety of cancers. This pathway appears to play an important role in the failure of immune reactivity to malignant plasma cells in multiple myeloma patients, as the tumor cells express relatively high levels of PD-L1, and T cells show increased PD-1 expression. In the current study, we demonstrate that PD-1/PD-L1 blockade with a PD-L1-specific Ab elicits rejection of a murine myeloma when combined with lymphodepleting irradiation. This particular combined approach by itself has not previously been shown to be efficacious in other tumor models. The antitumor effect of lymphodepletion/anti-PD-L1 therapy was most robust when tumor Ag-experienced T cells were present either through cell transfer or survival after nonmyeloablative irradiation. In vivo depletion of CD4 or CD8 T cells completely eliminated antitumor efficacy of the lymphodepletion/anti-PD-L1 therapy, indicating that both T cell subsets are necessary for tumor rejection. Elimination of myeloma by T cells occurs relatively quickly as tumor cells in the bone marrow were nearly nondetectable by 5 d after the first anti-PD-L1 treatment, suggesting that antimyeloma reactivity is primarily mediated by preactivated T cells, rather than newly generated myeloma-reactive T cells. Anti-PD-L1 plus lymphodepletion failed to improve survival in two solid tumor models, but demonstrated significant efficacy in two hematologic malignancy models. In summary, our results support the clinical testing of lymphodepletion and PD-1/PD-L1 blockade as a novel approach for improving the survival of patients with multiple myeloma.
Takenaka, M., et al. (2012). “Complement activation is not required for obliterative airway disease induced by antibodies to major histocompatibility complex class I: Implications for chronic lung rejection.” J Heart Lung Transplant 31(11): 1214-1222. PubMed
BACKGROUND: The role of non-complement activating antibodies (ncAbs) to mismatched donor human leukocyte antigen (HLA) in the pathogenesis of chronic lung rejection is not known. We used a murine model of obliterative airway disease (OAD) induced by Abs to major histocompatibility major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and serum from donor-specific Abs developed in human lung transplant (LTx) recipients to test the role of ncAbs in the development of OAD and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). METHODS: Anti-MHC ncAbs were administered intrabronchially in B.10 mice or in C3 knockout (C3KO) mice. Lungs were analyzed by histopathology. Lymphocytes secreting interleukin (IL)-17, interferon-gamma, or IL-10 to collagen V and K-alpha1 tubulin (Kalpha1T) were enumerated by enzyme-linked immunospot assay. Serum antibodies to collagen V and Kalpha1T were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cytokine and growth factor expression in lungs was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Donor-specific Abs from patients with BOS and control BOS-negative LTx recipients were analyzed by C1q assay. RESULTS: Administration of ncAbs in B.10 mice or C3KO resulted in OAD lesions. There were significant increases in IL-17- and interferon-gamma-secreting cells to collagen V and Kalpha1T, along with serum Abs to these antigens. There was also augmented expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1, IL-6, IL-1beta, vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor-beta, and fibroblastic growth factor in mice administered ncAbs by Day 3. Among 5 LTx recipients with BOS, only 1 had C1q binding donor-specific Abs. CONCLUSION: Complement activation by Abs to MHC class I is not required for development of OAD and human BOS. Therefore, anti-MHC binding to epithelial and endothelial cells can directly activate pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory cascades leading to immune response to self-antigens and chronic rejection.
Shaikh, S. R., et al. (2009). “Docosahexaenoic acid modifies the clustering and size of lipid rafts and the lateral organization and surface expression of MHC class I of EL4 cells.” J Nutr 139(9): 1632-1639. PubMed
An emerging molecular mechanism by which docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) exerts its effects is modification of lipid raft organization. The biophysical model, based on studies with liposomes, shows that DHA avoids lipid rafts because of steric incompatibility between DHA and cholesterol. The model predicts that DHA does not directly modify rafts; rather, it incorporates into nonrafts to modify the lateral organization and/or conformation of membrane proteins, such as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I. Here, we tested predictions of the model at a cellular level by incorporating oleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and DHA, compared with a bovine serum albumin (BSA) control, into the membranes of EL4 cells. Quantitative microscopy showed that DHA, but not EPA, treatment, relative to the BSA control diminished lipid raft clustering and increased their size. Approximately 30% of DHA was incorporated directly into rafts without changing the distribution of cholesterol between rafts and nonrafts. Quantification of fluorescence colocalization images showed that DHA selectively altered MHC class I lateral organization by increasing the fraction of the nonraft protein into rafts compared with BSA. Both DHA and EPA treatments increased antibody binding to MHC class I compared with BSA. Antibody titration showed that DHA and EPA did not change MHC I conformation but increased total surface levels relative to BSA. Taken together, our findings are not in agreement with the biophysical model. Therefore, we propose a model that reconciles contradictory viewpoints from biophysical and cellular studies to explain how DHA modifies lipid rafts on several length scales. Our study supports the notion that rafts are an important target of DHA’s mode of action.