anti-human CM-CSF (Clone: BVD2-23B6)
Takeuchi, S., et al. (2015). "Chemotherapy-Derived Inflammatory Responses Accelerate the Formation of Immunosuppressive Myeloid Cells in the Tissue Microenvironment of Human Pancreatic Cancer." Cancer Res 75(13): 2629-2640. PubMed
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the most common type of pancreatic malignancies. PDAC builds a tumor microenvironment that plays critical roles in tumor progression and metastasis. However, the relationship between chemotherapy and modulation of PDAC-induced tumor microenvironment remains poorly understood. In this study, we report a role of chemotherapy-derived inflammatory response in the enrichment of PDAC microenvironment with immunosuppressive myeloid cells. Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a major cytokine associated with oncogenic KRAS in PDAC cells. GM-CSF production was significantly enhanced in various PDAC cell lines or PDAC tumor tissues from patients after treatment with chemotherapy, which induced the differentiation of monocytes into myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). Furthermore, blockade of GM-CSF with monoclonal antibodies helped to restore T-cell proliferation when cocultured with monocytes stimulated with tumor supernatants. GM-CSF expression was also observed in primary tumors and correlated with poor prognosis in PDAC patients. Together, these results describe a role of GM-CSF in the modification of chemotherapy-treated PDAC microenvironment and suggest that the targeting of GM-CSF may benefit PDAC patients' refractory to current anticancer regimens by defeating MDSC-mediated immune escape.
Curran, C. S., et al. (2011). "GM-CSF production by glioblastoma cells has a functional role in eosinophil survival, activation, and growth factor production for enhanced tumor cell proliferation." J Immunol 187(3): 1254-1263. PubMed
Medicinal interventions of limited efficacy are currently available for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common and lethal primary brain tumor in adults. The eosinophil is a pivotal immune cell in the pathobiology of atopic disease that is also found to accumulate in certain tumor tissues. Inverse associations between atopy and GBM risk suggest that the eosinophil may play a functional role in certain tumor immune responses. To assess the potential interactions between eosinophils and GBM, we cultured human primary blood eosinophils with two separate human GBM-derived cell lines (A172, U87-MG) or conditioned media generated in the presence or absence of TNF-alpha. Results demonstrated differential eosinophil adhesion and increased survival in response to coculture with GBM cell lines. Eosinophil responses to GBM cell line-conditioned media included increased survival, activation, CD11b expression, and S100A9 release. Addition of GM-CSF neutralizing Abs to GBM cell cultures or conditioned media reduced eosinophil adhesion, survival, and activation, linking tumor cell-derived GM-CSF to the functions of eosinophils in the tumor microenvironment. Dexamethasone, which has been reported to inhibit eosinophil recruitment and shrink GBM lesions on contrast-enhanced scans, reduced the production of tumor cell-derived GM-CSF. Furthermore, culture of GBM cells in eosinophil-conditioned media increased tumor cell viability, and generation of eosinophil-conditioned media in the presence of GM-CSF enhanced the effect. These data support the idea of a paracrine loop between GM-CSF-producing tumors and eosinophil-derived growth factors in tumor promotion/progression.
Sukkar, M. B., et al. (2004). "'Proliferative' and 'synthetic' airway smooth muscle cells are overlapping populations." Immunol Cell Biol 82(5): 471-478. PubMed
The extension of airway smooth muscle cell (ASMC) functions, from just contractile, to synthetic and/or proliferative states, is an important component of airway remodelling and inflammation in asthma. Whereas all these functions have been demonstrated in ASM, currently, it is not known whether ASMC can be differentiated on the basis of their proliferative and synthetic functions. We used flow-cytometric techniques to determine, first, whether human ASMC are phenotypically heterogenous with regard to their secretory function, and second, the proliferative status of secretory cells. ASMC were induced to synthesize GM-CSF by stimulation with IL-1beta and TNF-alpha followed by 10% human serum. Flow-cytometric detection of intracellular GM-CSF revealed that only a proportion of cells in culture (approximately 20-60%) synthesize GM-CSF. To determine the proliferative status of GM-CSF producing cells, ASMC were pretreated with 5,6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE), a fluorescein based dye used to track cell division, prior to cytokine/serum stimulation. Simultaneous analysis of intracellular GM-CSF and CFSE revealed that GM-CSF producing cells were present in both the divided and undivided ASMC populations. Thus, cytokine production and proliferation occurred in overlapping ASMC populations and prior progression through the cell cycle was not essential for ASMC cytokine production.