InVivoMAb anti-mouse CSF1R (CD115) (Clone: AFS98)
Bauche, D., et al. (2018). "LAG3(+) Regulatory T Cells Restrain Interleukin-23-Producing CX3CR1(+) Gut-Resident Macrophages during Group 3 Innate Lymphoid Cell-Driven Colitis." Immunity 49(2): 342-352 e345. PubMed
Interleukin-22 (IL-22)-producing group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) maintains gut homeostasis but can also promote inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The regulation of ILC3-dependent colitis remains to be elucidated. Here we show that Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg cells) prevented ILC3-mediated colitis in an IL-10-independent manner. Treg cells inhibited IL-23 and IL-1beta production from intestinal-resident CX3CR1(+) macrophages but not CD103(+) dendritic cells. Moreover, Treg cells restrained ILC3 production of IL-22 through suppression of CX3CR1(+) macrophage production of IL-23 and IL-1beta. This suppression was contact dependent and was mediated by latent activation gene-3 (LAG-3)-an immune checkpoint receptor-expressed on Treg cells. Engagement of LAG-3 on MHC class II drove profound immunosuppression of CX3CR1(+) tissue-resident macrophages. Our study reveals that the health of the intestinal mucosa is maintained by an axis driven by Treg cells communication with resident macrophages that withhold inflammatory stimuli required for ILC3 function.
Gordon, S. R., et al. (2017). "PD-1 expression by tumour-associated macrophages inhibits phagocytosis and tumour immunity." Nature 545(7655): 495-499. PubMed
Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) is an immune checkpoint receptor that is upregulated on activated T cells for the induction of immune tolerance. Tumour cells frequently overexpress the ligand for PD-1, programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), facilitating their escape from the immune system. Monoclonal antibodies that block the interaction between PD-1 and PD-L1, by binding to either the ligand or receptor, have shown notable clinical efficacy in patients with a variety of cancers, including melanoma, colorectal cancer, non-small-cell lung cancer and Hodgkin's lymphoma. Although it is well established that PD-1-PD-L1 blockade activates T cells, little is known about the role that this pathway may have in tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs). Here we show that both mouse and human TAMs express PD-1. TAM PD-1 expression increases over time in mouse models of cancer and with increasing disease stage in primary human cancers. TAM PD-1 expression correlates negatively with phagocytic potency against tumour cells, and blockade of PD-1-PD-L1 in vivo increases macrophage phagocytosis, reduces tumour growth and lengthens the survival of mice in mouse models of cancer in a macrophage-dependent fashion. This suggests that PD-1-PD-L1 therapies may also function through a direct effect on macrophages, with substantial implications for the treatment of cancer with these agents.
Moynihan, K. D., et al. (2016). "Eradication of large established tumors in mice by combination immunotherapy that engages innate and adaptive immune responses." Nat Med. doi: 10.1038/nm.4200. PubMed
Checkpoint blockade with antibodies specific for cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein (CTLA)-4 or programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1; also known as PD-1) elicits durable tumor regression in metastatic cancer, but these dramatic responses are confined to a minority of patients. This suboptimal outcome is probably due in part to the complex network of immunosuppressive pathways present in advanced tumors, which are unlikely to be overcome by intervention at a single signaling checkpoint. Here we describe a combination immunotherapy that recruits a variety of innate and adaptive immune cells to eliminate large tumor burdens in syngeneic tumor models and a genetically engineered mouse model of melanoma; to our knowledge tumors of this size have not previously been curable by treatments relying on endogenous immunity. Maximal antitumor efficacy required four components: a tumor-antigen-targeting antibody, a recombinant interleukin-2 with an extended half-life, anti-PD-1 and a powerful T cell vaccine. Depletion experiments revealed that CD8+ T cells, cross-presenting dendritic cells and several other innate immune cell subsets were required for tumor regression. Effective treatment induced infiltration of immune cells and production of inflammatory cytokines in the tumor, enhanced antibody-mediated tumor antigen uptake and promoted antigen spreading. These results demonstrate the capacity of an elicited endogenous immune response to destroy large, established tumors and elucidate essential characteristics of combination immunotherapies that are capable of curing a majority of tumors in experimental settings typically viewed as intractable.
Arnold, I. C., et al. (2015). "CD11c monocyte/macrophages promote chronic Helicobacter hepaticus-induced intestinal inflammation through the production of IL-23." Mucosal Immunol. doi: 10.1038/mi.2015.65. PubMed
In inflammatory bowel diseases, a breakdown in host microbial interactions accompanies sustained activation of immune cells in the gut. Functional studies suggest a key role for interleukin-23 (IL-23) in orchestrating intestinal inflammation. IL-23 can be produced by various mononuclear phagocytes (MNPs) following acute microbial stimulation, but little is known about the key cellular sources of IL-23 that drive chronic intestinal inflammation. Here we have addressed this question using a physiological model of bacteria-driven colitis. By combining conditional gene ablation and gene expression profiling, we found that IL-23 production by CD11c+ MNPs was essential to trigger intestinal immunopathology and identified MHCII+ monocytes and macrophages as the major source of IL-23. Expression of IL-23 by monocytes was acquired during their differentiation in the intestine and correlated with the expression of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) and CD64. In contrast, Batf3-dependent CD103+ CD11b- dendritic cells were dispensable for bacteria-induced colitis in this model. These studies reinforce the pathogenic role of monocytes in dysregulated responses to intestinal bacteria and identify production of IL-23 as a key component of this response. Further understanding of the functional sources of IL-23 in diverse forms of intestinal inflammation may lead to novel therapeutic strategies aimed at interrupting IL-23-driven immune pathology.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication 5 August 2015. doi:10.1038/mi.2015.65.
Conde, P., et al. (2015). "DC-SIGN(+) Macrophages Control the Induction of Transplantation Tolerance." Immunity 42(6): 1143-1158. PubMed
Tissue effector cells of the monocyte lineage can differentiate into different cell types with specific cell function depending on their environment. The phenotype, developmental requirements, and functional mechanisms of immune protective macrophages that mediate the induction of transplantation tolerance remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that costimulatory blockade favored accumulation of DC-SIGN-expressing macrophages that inhibited CD8(+) T cell immunity and promoted CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Treg cell expansion in numbers. Mechanistically, that simultaneous DC-SIGN engagement by fucosylated ligands and TLR4 signaling was required for production of immunoregulatory IL-10 associated with prolonged allograft survival. Deletion of DC-SIGN-expressing macrophages in vivo, interfering with their CSF1-dependent development, or preventing the DC-SIGN signaling pathway abrogated tolerance. Together, the results provide new insights into the tolerogenic effects of costimulatory blockade and identify DC-SIGN(+) suppressive macrophages as crucial mediators of immunological tolerance with the concomitant therapeutic implications in the clinic.
Kaminsky, L. W., et al. (2015). "Redundant Function of Plasmacytoid and Conventional Dendritic Cells Is Required To Survive a Natural Virus Infection." J Virol 89(19): 9974-9985. PubMed
Viruses that spread systemically from a peripheral site of infection cause morbidity and mortality in the human population. Innate myeloid cells, including monocytes, macrophages, monocyte-derived dendritic cells (mo-DC), and dendritic cells (DC), respond early during viral infection to control viral replication, reducing virus spread from the peripheral site. Ectromelia virus (ECTV), an orthopoxvirus that naturally infects the mouse, spreads systemically from the peripheral site of infection and results in death of susceptible mice. While phagocytic cells have a requisite role in the response to ECTV, the requirement for individual myeloid cell populations during acute immune responses to peripheral viral infection is unclear. In this study, a variety of myeloid-specific depletion methods were used to dissect the roles of individual myeloid cell subsets in the survival of ECTV infection. We showed that DC are the primary producers of type I interferons (T1-IFN), requisite cytokines for survival, following ECTV infection. DC, but not macrophages, monocytes, or granulocytes, were required for control of the virus and survival of mice following ECTV infection. Depletion of either plasmacytoid DC (pDC) alone or the lymphoid-resident DC subset (CD8alpha(+) DC) alone did not confer lethal susceptibility to ECTV. However, the function of at least one of the pDC or CD8alpha(+) DC subsets is required for survival of ECTV infection, as mice depleted of both populations were susceptible to ECTV challenge. The presence of at least one of these DC subsets is sufficient for cytokine production that reduces ECTV replication and virus spread, facilitating survival following infection. IMPORTANCE: Prior to the eradication of variola virus, the orthopoxvirus that causes smallpox, one-third of infected people succumbed to the disease. Following successful eradication of smallpox, vaccination rates with the smallpox vaccine have significantly dropped. There is now an increasing incidence of zoonotic orthopoxvirus infections for which there are no effective treatments. Moreover, the safety of the smallpox vaccine is of great concern, as complications may arise, resulting in morbidity. Like many viruses that cause significant human diseases, orthopoxviruses spread from a peripheral site of infection to become systemic. This study elucidates the early requirement for innate immune cells in controlling a peripheral infection with ECTV, the causative agent of mousepox. We report that there is redundancy in the function of two innate immune cell subsets in controlling virus spread early during infection. The viral control mediated by these cell subsets presents a potential target for therapies and rational vaccine design.
Naik, S., et al. (2015). "Commensal-dendritic-cell interaction specifies a unique protective skin immune signature." Nature 520(7545): 104-108. PubMed
The skin represents the primary interface between the host and the environment. This organ is also home to trillions of microorganisms that play an important role in tissue homeostasis and local immunity. Skin microbial communities are highly diverse and can be remodelled over time or in response to environmental challenges. How, in the context of this complexity, individual commensal microorganisms may differentially modulate skin immunity and the consequences of these responses for tissue physiology remains unclear. Here we show that defined commensals dominantly affect skin immunity and identify the cellular mediators involved in this specification. In particular, colonization with Staphylococcus epidermidis induces IL-17A(+) CD8(+) T cells that home to the epidermis, enhance innate barrier immunity and limit pathogen invasion. Commensal-specific T-cell responses result from the coordinated action of skin-resident dendritic cell subsets and are not associated with inflammation, revealing that tissue-resident cells are poised to sense and respond to alterations in microbial communities. This interaction may represent an evolutionary means by which the skin immune system uses fluctuating commensal signals to calibrate barrier immunity and provide heterologous protection against invasive pathogens. These findings reveal that the skin immune landscape is a highly dynamic environment that can be rapidly and specifically remodelled by encounters with defined commensals, findings that have profound implications for our understanding of tissue-specific immunity and pathologies.
Sheng, K. C., et al. (2014). "IL-3 and CSF-1 interact to promote generation of CD11c+ IL-10-producing macrophages." PLoS One 9(4): e95208. PubMed
Unraveling the mechanisms of hematopoiesis regulated by multiple cytokines remains a challenge in hematology. IL-3 is an allergic cytokine with the multilineage potential, while CSF-1 is produced in the steady state with restricted lineage coverage. Here, we uncovered an instructive role of CSF-1 in IL-3-mediated hematopoiesis. CSF-1 significantly promoted IL-3-driven CD11c+ cell expansion and dampened basophil and mast cell generation from C57BL/6 bone marrow. Further studies indicated that the CSF-1/CSF-1R axis contributed significantly to IL-3-induced CD11c+ cell generation through enhancing c-Fos-associated monopoiesis. CD11c+ cells induced by IL-3 or IL-3/CSF-1 were competent in cellular maturation and endocytosis. Both IL-3 and IL-3/CSF-1 cells lacked classical dendritic cell appearance and resembled macrophages in morphology. Both populations produced a high level of IL-10, in addition to IL-1, IL-6 and TNFalpha, in response to LPS, and were relatively poor T cell stimulators. Collectively, these findings reveal a role for CSF-1 in mediating the IL-3 hematopoietic pathway through monopoiesis, which regulates expansion of CD11c+ macrophages.
Greter, M., et al. (2012). "GM-CSF controls nonlymphoid tissue dendritic cell homeostasis but is dispensable for the differentiation of inflammatory dendritic cells." Immunity 36(6): 1031-1046. PubMed
GM-CSF (Csf-2) is a critical cytokine for the in vitro generation of dendritic cells (DCs) and is thought to control the development of inflammatory DCs and resident CD103(+) DCs in some tissues. Here we showed that in contrast to the current understanding, Csf-2 receptor acts in the steady state to promote the survival and homeostasis of nonlymphoid tissue-resident CD103(+) and CD11b(+) DCs. Absence of Csf-2 receptor on lung DCs abrogated the induction of CD8(+) T cell immunity after immunization with particulate antigens. In contrast, Csf-2 receptor was dispensable for the differentiation and innate function of inflammatory DCs during acute injuries. Instead, inflammatory DCs required Csf-1 receptor for their development. Thus, Csf-2 is important in vaccine-induced CD8(+) T cell immunity through the regulation of nonlymphoid tissue DC homeostasis rather than control of inflammatory DCs in vivo.
Li, W., et al. (2012). "Intravital 2-photon imaging of leukocyte trafficking in beating heart." J Clin Invest 122(7): 2499-2508. PubMed
Two-photon intravital microscopy has substantially broadened our understanding of tissue- and organ-specific differences in the regulation of inflammatory responses. However, little is known about the dynamic regulation of leukocyte recruitment into inflamed heart tissue, largely due to technical difficulties inherent in imaging moving tissue. Here, we report a method for imaging beating murine hearts using intravital 2-photon microscopy. Using this method, we visualized neutrophil trafficking at baseline and during inflammation. Ischemia reperfusion injury induced by transplantation or transient coronary artery ligation led to recruitment of neutrophils to the heart, their extravasation from coronary veins, and infiltration of the myocardium where they formed large clusters. Grafting hearts containing mutant ICAM-1, a ligand important for neutrophil recruitment, reduced the crawling velocities of neutrophils within vessels, and markedly inhibited their extravasation. Similar impairment was seen with the inhibition of Mac-1, a receptor for ICAM-1. Blockade of LFA-1, another ICAM-1 receptor, prevented neutrophil adherence to endothelium and extravasation in heart grafts. As inflammatory responses in the heart are of great relevance to public health, this imaging approach holds promise for studying cardiac-specific mechanisms of leukocyte recruitment and identifying novel therapeutic targets for treating heart disease.
Tagliani, E., et al. (2011). "Coordinate regulation of tissue macrophage and dendritic cell population dynamics by CSF-1." J Exp Med 208(9): 1901-1916. PubMed
Tissue macrophages (Mphis) and dendritic cells (DCs) play essential roles in tissue homeostasis and immunity. How these cells are maintained at their characteristic densities in different tissues has remained unclear. Aided by a novel flow cytometric technique for assessing relative rates of blood-borne precursor recruitment, we examined Mphi and DC population dynamics in the pregnant mouse uterus, where rapid tissue growth facilitated a dissection of underlying regulatory mechanisms. We demonstrate how Mphi dynamics, and thus Mphi tissue densities, are locally controlled by CSF-1, a pleiotropic growth factor whose in situ level of activity varied widely between uterine tissue layers. CSF-1 acted in part by inducing Mphi proliferation and in part by stimulating the extravasation of Ly6C(hi) monocytes (Mos) that served as Mphi precursors. Mo recruitment was dependent on the production of CCR2 chemokine receptor ligands by uterine Mphis in response to CSF-1. Unexpectedly, a parallel CSF-1-regulated, but CCR2-independent pathway influenced uterine DC tissue densities by controlling local pre-DC extravasation rates. Together, these data provide cellular and molecular insight into the regulation of Mphi tissue densities under noninflammatory conditions and reveal a central role for CSF-1 in the coordination of Mphi and DC homeostasis.
Lim, A. K., et al. (2009). "Antibody blockade of c-fms suppresses the progression of inflammation and injury in early diabetic nephropathy in obese db/db mice." Diabetologia 52(8): 1669-1679. PubMed
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Macrophage-mediated renal injury plays an important role in the development of diabetic nephropathy. Colony-stimulating factor (CSF)-1 is a cytokine that is produced in diabetic kidneys and promotes macrophage accumulation, activation and survival. CSF-1 acts exclusively through the c-fms receptor, which is only expressed on cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage. Therefore, we used c-fms blockade as a strategy to selectively target macrophage-mediated injury during the progression of diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: Obese, type 2 diabetic db/db BL/KS mice with established albuminuria were treated with a neutralising anti-c-fms monoclonal antibody (AFS98) or isotype matched control IgG from 12 to 18 weeks of age and examined for renal injury. RESULTS: Treatment with AFS98 did not affect obesity, hyperglycaemia, circulating monocyte levels or established albuminuria in db/db mice. However, AFS98 did prevent glomerular hyperfiltration and suppressed variables of inflammation in the diabetic kidney, including kidney macrophages (accumulation, activation and proliferation), chemokine CC motif ligand 2 levels (mRNA and urine protein), kidney activation of proinflammatory pathways (c-Jun amino-terminal kinase and activating transcription factor 2) and Tnf-alpha (also known as Tnf) mRNA levels. In addition, AFS98 decreased the tissue damage caused by macrophages including tubular injury (apoptosis and hypertrophy), interstitial damage (cell proliferation and myofibroblast accrual) and renal fibrosis (Tgf-beta1 [also known as Tgfb1] and Col4a1 mRNA). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Blockade of c-fms can suppress the progression of established diabetic nephropathy in db/db mice by targeting macrophage-mediated injury.